UNHCR and its partners have started installation of basic water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH) facilities in newly opened camps where refugees relocated from Nyarugusu and the new arrivals are planned to be accommodated. The first relocation of refugees from Nyarugusu to Nduta was commenced on 7 October 2015 and by mid-March 2016 Nduta is hosting more than 56,000 refugees and it is expected to host a maximum of 60,000 refugees by end of 2016. Nyangwa River in Nduta camp was revived to supply water to the distribution tanks. There are 12 water tanks/reservoirs with a capacity of 1,040 cubic metres, supplying water to the refugees in Nduta camp. As of March 2016, average water supply is 24 litres/person/day, which is above the UNHCR minimum standard of 20 litres. There are 268 functional tap stands that serve a total of 56,180 refugees as of 23 March 2016. Most of the families are living within 250 metres from the water points.
The water distribution network in camps was put on emergency modality, requiring to be upgraded gradually with a proper water supply system design. The geography of the camp allows facilitated water supply through gravitational force. However water from the river source to the tanks should be pumped constantly.
Since January 2016 refugees have started to settle in Mtendeli which is hosting some 5,000 people as of March 2016. There is one functional borehole supplying water to the camp. One additional borehole was just drilled and drilling of four more boreholes is underway. The potential groundwater of the Mtendeli camp is found below the expected level, however further result of drilling activities will suggest the exact holding capacity of the camp. Mtendeli camp is expected to accommodate 50,000 refugees by the end of 2016. The current population in the camp is getting an average of 17 to 24 litres/person/day water and the per capita ratio of a tap stands at 1:250.
The third camp, Karago, which is adjacent to Mtendeli is yet to be opened. The preliminary work for water supply survey has been done. Site planning work is in progress.
The Nyarugusu camp is hosting more than 65,000 refugees from DRC since 20 years and hosted over 123,000 refugees from Burundi during a peak of emergency. Most of the WASH services are shared among the two population groups (old and new refugees). Considering the deteriorating living conditions in the mass shelters (in terms of shelter condition, WASH and health services, SGBV etc.), UNHCR has initiated camp relocation activities, both within and between camps, effective from October 2015. About 22,384 refugees have been relocated from Nyarugusu camp to Nduta camp (17,562) and Mtendeli camp (4,822) Mtendeli camp. The Nduta camp has reached its maximum capacity of hosting; however the pace of relocation to Mtendeli camp has been slowing down due to limited capacity of water supply service delivery in the Mtendeli camp.
Considering the existence of water sources in the Nyarugusu camp, the refugee populations have been receiving water from six different sources (three motorized boreholes and three motorized surface water treatment system). Based on the existing water production trend, a camp is able to host more than 175,000 people receiving 20 litres per person per day (lpd). The existing populations 143,000 in a camp have been receiving 25lpd of water.
In order to ensure basic water supply services to the Burundian refugees residing in different camps, 5 additional boreholes needs to be drilled, planned, designed, constructed, and there is a need to rehabilitate the entire water distribution system. Back-up electro mechanical equipment (such as generators, pumps, control panels and ground water monitoring) and rehabilitation of boreholes need to be procured.