Nigeria - 2021 year-end report - Population trends


According to UN estimates, about 2.2 million IDPs (531,000 women, 423,000 men, 677,000 girls, and 569,000 boys), were displaced in the North East as of December 2021, and 890,0001 are in IDP camps. An estimated 99% of the displacement is attributed to ongoing conflict, with over 74% of displaced people in Borno State. 59% are estimated to be below 18 years, 35% between 18 and 59 years, and 6% above 60 years. An estimated 40% of IDPs live in 309 camps and camp-like settings and 60% live in 2,072 host communities. Adamawa has the second highest number of IDPs with 221,253 followed by Yobe with 151,874 persons. 

By the end of December 2021, Nigeria hosted 79,000 refugees and asylum seekers. This includes 72,000 Cameroonian refugees that are mainly located in the Cross River (56%), Taraba (25%), Benue (16%) States, 4,781 urban refugees, and 1,662 asylum seekers who live in urban areas across South, Central, and North Nigeria. The ongoing violence in the North West and South West regions of Cameroon continues to drive the civilian population to seek refuge in Nigeria. New arrivals continue to be received despite the impact of COVID-19 restrictions. 55% of the urban refugee population are between 18 and 59 years old. Trends indicate a minimal desire for repatriation among urban refugees (only two repatriated over a three-year period). 

In the Middle Belt, also referred to as North Central, there are an estimated 452,000 IDPs in Benue, Nasarawa, and Plateau States (IOM DTM R8), of which 53% are estimated to be below 18 years; 42% are between 18 and 59 years; and 5% above 60 years.  In the northwestern States of Zamfara, Sokoto, Kaduna, Kano, and Katsina there are an estimated 521,000 IDPs (IOM DTM R8).