Operational information on the Latin America subregion is presented below. A summary of this can also be downloaded in PDF format. This subregion covers the following countries:
By clicking on the icons on the map, additional information is displayed.
The boundaries and names shown and the designations used on this map do not imply official endorsement or acceptance by the United Nations.
Budgets and Expenditure in Subregion Latin America
People of Concern - 2021 [projected][["Refugees",329805],["Asylum-seekers",1258414],["IDPs",8603590],["Returned refugees",50100],["Stateless",417],["Others of concern",1850250],["Venezuelans displaced abroad",4132171]]
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Operational environmentBOLIVARIAN REPUBLIC OF VENEZUELA
Population outflows from the Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela are expected to resume once COVID-19-related restrictions ease, with irregular movements towards Latin America and the Caribbean increasing while borders remain closed. Many Venezuelans who returned to the country during the pandemic have stated their intention to leave the country again in 2021. UNHCR plans to step up assistance inside Venezuela for returnees and host communities in need, while strengthening protection and shelter/energy/non-food item cluster leadership and delivery. UNHCR will continue to co-lead (with IOM) the inter-agency response to implement the Regional Refugee and Migrant Response Plan across 17 countries, as well as providing technical support to governmental coordination as part of the Quito Process—an initiative of several Latin American countries that seeks to harmonize domestic policies in receiving countries.
NORTH OF CENTRAL AMERICA
Political fragility compounded with the impact of the pandemic will likely result in additional forced displacement in the north of Central America. Violence and persecution from criminal gangs in El Salvador and Honduras, combined with increased restrictions on border movements to the north, will cause more internal displacement, with projected numbers at around 400,000 IDPs. Border restrictions implemented during the pandemic have led people take even more dangerous routes in search of safety. Support to the Regional Comprehensive Protection and Solutions Framework for Central America and Mexico (MIRPS) and the implementation of national plans will be key for UNHCR in the region, as well as working with the Organization of American States (OAS) to expand the MIRPS support platform.
It is expected that new displacements will continue within and from Colombia in areas controlled or disputed by irregular armed groups in line previous years - approximately 100,000 people annually. Nearly 20,000 Colombians were affected by large group displacements in 2020 alone, and displacement and COVID-19-related confinement created new humanitarian needs in several regions. As local and national authorities cope with the aftermath of the pandemic, coordinated efforts will be required to ensure monitoring and emergency response, community empowerment, and solutions through land legalizations and public policies for IDP integration aligned with implementation of the Peace Agreement signed by the Colombian Government and Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia—People's Army, or FARC (per the acronym in Spanish). UNHCR will continue to co-lead the protection cluster (with Norwegian Refugee Council).
As many as 45,000 people are expected to arrive to Costa Rica and Panama in 2021 from Nicaragua. Nicaragua’s national elections, slated for November 2021, are likely to exacerbate the complex sociopolitical and human rights situation. An economic downturn and a potential health sector collapse following the pandemic are additional elements in anticipating the increase in displaced Nicaraguans in the coming year. Capacity within Costa Rica, where over 100,000 Nicaraguans already have sought refuge, is stretched. UNHCR will support social protection programmes, as well as food security, livelihoods and shelter through cash assistance as well as providing health insurance for especially vulnerable asylum-seekers and refugees.
In 2021, the socioeconomic impact of the pandemic is expected to have negative consequences on the broader protection environment across the region. Compounded with increased border controls reducing access to territory and regular stay (including asylum), and public fatigue and xenophobic sentiments, there may also be challenges to the inclusion of people of concern into national welfare systems. Temporary suspensions or delays in refugee status determination proceedings will further strain national asylum systems. The post-pandemic socioeconomic crisis will also disproportionately impact workers in the informal sector and the self-employed, affecting the majority of UNHCR´s populations of concern.
Strategy: Response and implementationTaking into account the impact of the pandemic on the socioeconomic fabric in Latin America, UNHCR will adopt a two-fold strategy, prioritizing the provision of life-saving assistance and protection to refugees, as well as inclusion into national systems and labour markets. Particular attention will be paid to the most vulnerable who have lost their income as a result of the pandemic. Operations will also provide life-saving assistance in the areas of health, water, sanitation and hygeine, core relief items, emergency shelter and use of multipurpose cash assistance via transfers or vouchers, especially in border areas and urban environments with a large population of displaced people. Protection interventions will focus on access to quality refugee status determination, biometric registration and referrals to services according to needs, as well as enhanced community outreach. The prioritization of life-saving assistance will go hand in hand with efforts to find long-term solutions by fostering cooperation with a wide array of actors, including local authorities and the private sector, to provide livelihood opportunities and promote inclusion into national protection systems. In this regard, combatting the increasing xenophobic sentiment across the region will remain a clear priority.
2021 Budget for Latin America | USD
|Argentina Multi-Country Office||38,882,360||0||0||0||38,882,360|
|Panama Multi-Country Office||48,678,517||0||0||0||48,678,517|
|Venezuela (Bolivarian Republic of)||61,158,689||0||0||0||61,158,689|
2021 Voluntary Contributions to Latin America | USD
|Earmarking / Donor||Pillar 1
|Latin America overall|
|United States of America||0||0||2,300,000||2,300,000|
|Latin America overall subtotal||0||0||2,300,000||2,300,000|
|Argentina Multi-Country Office|
|Private donors in the United States of America||101,177||0||0||101,177|
|Argentina Multi-Country Office subtotal||116,200||0||0||116,200|
|International Organization for Migration||421,357||0||0||421,357|
|Private donors in Brazil||0||0||551,136||551,136|
|United States of America||1,437,275||0||0||1,437,275|
|Central Emergency Response Fund (CERF)||0||743,151||0||743,151|
|Private donors in Colombia||19,626||0||0||19,626|
|Private donors in France||119,474||0||0||119,474|
|Private donors in Mexico||0||0||3,752||3,752|
|Private donors in Sweden||28,487||0||0||28,487|
|Private donors in the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland||98,656||0||0||98,656|
|Private donors in the United States of America||150,000||0||0||150,000|
|Republic of Korea||0||675,648||0||675,648|
|UN Trust Fund for Human Security||0||81,259||0||81,259|
|United Nations Environment Programme||20,000||0||0||20,000|
|United States of America||3,437,275||0||0||3,437,275|
|UN COVID-19 MPTF||94,257||0||0||94,257|
|United States of America||0||0||1,400,000||1,400,000|
|Costa Rica subtotal||857,904||0||1,400,000||2,257,904|
|Republic of Korea||0||0||1,163,684||1,163,684|
|United States of America||2,000,000||0||0||2,000,000|
|UN Peacebuilding Fund||0||0||155,831||155,831|
|United States of America||0||1,000,000||5,300,000||6,300,000|
|El Salvador subtotal||0||1,671,269||5,455,831||7,127,100|
|UN Peacebuilding Fund||0||0||155,982||155,982|
|United States of America||1,000,000||0||3,250,000||4,250,000|
|Private donors in Mexico||62,659||0||2,959||65,618|
|Private donors in the United States of America||500,000||0||90,946||590,946|
|United States of America||0||0||3,100,000||3,100,000|
|Panama Multi-Country Office|
|United States of America||35,000||0||0||35,000|
|Panama Multi-Country Office subtotal||35,000||0||0||35,000|
|Private donors in Mexico||1,318||0||0||1,318|
|United States of America||2,837,275||0||0||2,837,275|
|Venezuela (Bolivarian Republic of)|
|United States of America||1,700,000||0||0||1,700,000|
|Venezuela (Bolivarian Republic of) subtotal||3,317,833||0||1,023,541||4,341,374|