Latin America

Operational information on the Latin America subregion is presented below. A summary of this can also be downloaded in PDF format. This subregion covers the following countries:
 

Subregion: Latin America

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Budgets and Expenditure in Subregion Latin America

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2019 {"categories":[2014,2015,2016,2017,2018,2019],"budget":[90.21897290999999,95.44417492400001,115.39270982,121.59747979299999,172.21536010999998,344.697317007],"expenditure":[49.98284570999999,49.91913141,60.80002753,70.53629212,114.37318446,224.53406345]} {"categories":[2014,2015,2016,2017,2018,2019],"p1":[60.53877343,63.974638204,78.61664868000001,90.00177706299999,149.4830097,326.75250212699996],"p2":[0.5026572,1.1087718100000001,1.1724936000000001,1.72743748,1.17585492,0.981548],"p3":[null,null,null,null,null,null],"p4":[29.17754228,30.36076491,35.60356754,29.86826525,21.55649549,16.96326688]} {"categories":[2014,2015,2016,2017,2018,2019],"p1":[32.203277820000004,34.30039144,43.1545312,55.02505765,101.93385011,215.60632941],"p2":[0.26571356,0.97657094,0.90564873,1.1479811100000001,0.5759772900000001,0.28972168],"p3":[null,null,null,null,null,null],"p4":[17.513854329999997,14.64216903,16.7398476,14.36325336,11.86335706,8.63801236]}
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People of Concern - 2019

[["Refugees",146741],["Refugee-like situation",108760],["Asylum-seekers",937289],["IDPs",8295002],["Returned refugees",31],["Stateless",262],["Others of concern",1165107],["Venezuelans displaced abroad",3485709]]
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By the end of 2019, the situation in Latin America was turbulent, with multiple displacement crises and social tensions in host countries gradually eroding countries’ capacities to receive new arrivals.

With some 4.5 million Venezuelans displaced worldwide (nearly 2 million more than 2018), the situation signified the worst displacement crisis in the Americas in recent history; and in the global context, was second only to the Syria crisis. While 2.4 million Venezuelans managed to regularize their stay in host countries through asylum procedures or migratory permits, almost 800,000 asylum-seekers were still awaiting the resolution of their applications at the end of 2019.

The protracted Colombia conflict continued to cause internal displacement, with a total of nearly 8 million people displaced within the country by the end of 2019. An additional 5,000 Colombians sought asylum in Ecuador during the year.

In Central America, violent crimes and insecurity forced thousands of people to flee within and out of El Salvador, Guatemala and Honduras. More than 247,100 people were internally displaced in Honduras, and some 71,500 were uprooted inside El Salvador. Nearly 469,300 Salvadorans and Hondurans crossed an international border–mainly into Mexico. The deteriorating situation in Nicaragua resulted in tens of thousands taking refuge in Costa Rica and Mexico.

Despite a tradition of open borders, the strain of constant large-scale arrivals led many countries to impose restrictions on access to territory and asylum, forcing many to enter through irregular routes. This in turn increased protection risks for many who transited throughout the region. Rising political distrust, anti-foreigner rhetoric and xenophobia further compounded a context of growing instability within many countries in the region, including Chile, Colombia, Ecuador and Peru.

In this context, UNHCR responded by providing emergency assistance at the borders, including reception, orientation, shelter and referrals. It also worked in urban centres to promote the inclusion of Venezuelans through a wide range of activities and partnerships. UNHCR and its partners focused on collaboration and a whole-of-society approach to provide a comprehensive response to the crisis.

UNHCR co-led a regional inter-agency platform (R4V) with IOM to coordinate the response to the Venezuela situation, in line with the 2014 Brazil Plan of Action. UNHCR further supported a number of multilateral processes, including the Quito Process—an initiative of several Latin American countries seeking to harmonize domestic policies in receiving countries — as well as the implementation of the comprehensive protection and solutions framework, a regional application of the Global Compact on Refugees, to respond to displacement in and from Central America (MIRPS by its acronym in Spanish).

Limited funding affected UNHCR’s capacity to scale up operations to provide life-saving assistance at key border locations, including between Colombia and the Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela; in Salta (Argentina); in Tecun Uman (Guatemala); and in Costa Rica.

Assistance was only able to be provided to the most vulnerable, including children, single-headed households or individuals with severe medical conditions. With more resources, UNHCR would have expanded its activities to foster education, vocational training and access to employment, especially targeting youth.

Despite coordinated actions under the regional inter-agency coordination platform to steer the operational response in support of host countries, the regional response plan for Venezuelans in 2019 was only 52% funded. With the exception of cash grants provided to some individuals who spontaneously decided to return home, funds were insufficient to support the reintegration activities of vulnerable returnees.

 

Operational environment

 Since 2015, more than 2.4 million Venezuelans have left for other countries in the region and beyond.  Though many Venezuelans remain in an irregular situation, over 336,000 Venezuelans have filed asylum claims globally and nearly 727,000 benefitted from other legal forms of stay in Latin America.
 
Most governments in the region have shown commendable solidarity towards Venezuelans though a select few have adopted restrictive measures. In order to promote regional dialogue and consensus necessary for the humanitarian response, a UNHCR and IOM Joint Special Representative for Venezuelan refugees and migrants was appointed. A new regional inter-agency coordination platform for Venezuelan refugees and migrants was set up, under the co-leadership of UNHCR and IOM. It aims to support and complement the response by national governments in affected countries while also bringing together a broad range of actors.      In 2019, a Regional Response Plan for Venezuelan Refugees and Migrants will be launched.
 
UNHCR will continue to reinforce its field presence and support States to improve reception conditions in border areas and advocacy for legal stay, including in the areas of registration, asylum or other legal protection pathways, documentation for returnees, profiling and protection monitoring. In an effort to curb discrimination and xenophobia, awareness campaigns will be launched. Local integration efforts will be pursued, using a community-based approach, in order to benefit hosting populations alike.
 
In Colombia, the implementation of the historical peace agreement with the Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia (FARC) remains challenging. The humanitarian situation deteriorated in various parts of the country, with new and recurrent displacement, as well as restrictions on freedom of movement leading to an increasing influx of Colombian refugees into Ecuador.  In addition, the conflict in Colombia is increasingly spilling over into Ecuador, resulting in internal displacement in Ecuador for the first time in its history in early 2018. 
 
UNHCR will continue implementing its 2018-2020 strategy for Colombia and Ecuador while adapting it to reflect the changing dynamics. In Colombia, UNHCR will advocate for the protection of IDPs and prevention of new displacement and continue working on durable solutions through the legalization of settlements. The Office will continue to support the implementation of the peace agreement through advocacy for the rights of victims, including IDPs, as well as support to the Special Peace Jurisdiction and the Truth Commission. In Ecuador, UNHCR will continue strengthening the national asylum system, improving self-reliance for refugees and supporting the national authorities to deal with the increasingly challenging border dynamics.
 
There has been a significant increase in the number of people fleeing violence and persecution in the North of Central America (NCA), with more than 300,000 asylum-seekers and refugees registered globally by mid-2018, mainly in the United States of America and Mexico, double the number of the previous year. The first half of 2018 also saw an increase in the total number of deportations of people from the NCA countries and the identification of returnees with serious protection concerns. In responding to this evolving situation, UNHCR will continue to support the implementation of the comprehensive refugee response framework (CRRF) known locally by its Spanish acronym MIRPS, by strengthening responsibility-sharing mechanisms, enhancing protection of asylum-seekers, refugees, returnees and IDPs and forging new alliances with regional development actors and the private-sector. UNHCR will also work to identify funds from both national budgets and international cooperation for the implementation of MIRPS commitments. 
 
The rapid deterioration of the situation in Nicaragua since April 2018 has led nearly 15,000 Nicaraguans to seek asylum in NCA countries, mostly in Costa Rica. In 2019, UNHCR will work to implement a regional response plan aiming at strengthening the asylum system and the preparedness and capacity of reception conditions.
 
Countries in the region continue to work under the Brazil Plan of Action (BPA), the regional framework for cooperation and responsibility-sharing in Latin America and the Caribbean. In 2019, UNHCR will support countries to consolidate asylum systems, work towards improving registration, case management and referral mechanisms, implement the Cities of Solidarity initiative recognizing socioeconomic and cultural inclusion, expand the regional safe spaces network and continue to advocate toward the end of statelessness in the region.

2019 Budget and Expenditure in Latin America | USD

Operation Pillar 1
Refugee programme
Pillar 2
Stateless programme
Pillar 3
Reintegration projects
Pillar 4
IDP projects
Total
Argentina Regional Office Budget
Expenditure
12,182,286
10,453,592
0
0
0
0
0
0
12,182,286
10,453,592
Brazil Budget
Expenditure
26,540,616
21,495,813
0
0
0
0
0
0
26,540,616
21,495,813
Colombia Budget
Expenditure
32,767,555
29,599,249
0
0
0
0
16,963,267
8,638,012
49,730,822
38,237,261
Costa Rica Budget
Expenditure
24,005,906
13,711,815
0
0
0
0
0
0
24,005,906
13,711,815
Ecuador Budget
Expenditure
38,025,536
22,253,400
0
0
0
0
0
0
38,025,536
22,253,400
Mexico Budget
Expenditure
60,565,518
52,369,900
0
0
0
0
0
0
60,565,518
52,369,900
Panama Regional Office Budget
Expenditure
63,738,571
23,546,734
0
0
0
0
0
0
63,738,571
23,546,734
Peru Budget
Expenditure
20,496,332
14,173,698
0
0
0
0
0
0
20,496,332
14,173,698
Regional Legal Unit Costa Rica Budget
Expenditure
4,223,291
2,189,552
981,548
289,722
0
0
0
0
5,204,839
2,479,274
Venezuela (Bolivarian Republic of) Budget
Expenditure
29,465,000
19,206,576
0
0
0
0
0
0
29,465,000
19,206,576
Venezuela Regional Refugee Coordination Office Budget
Expenditure
6,644,574
4,615,941
0
0
0
0
0
0
6,644,574
4,615,941
Regional activities for the Americas Budget
Expenditure
8,097,316
1,990,060
0
0
0
0
0
0
8,097,316
1,990,060
Total Budget
Expenditure
326,752,502
215,606,329
981,548
289,722
0
0
16,963,267
8,638,012
344,697,317
224,534,063

2019 Voluntary Contributions to Latin America | USD

Earmarking / Donor Pillar 1
Refugee programme
Pillar 4
IDP projects
All
pillars
Total
Latin America overall
Private donors in Sweden 008,748 8,748
United States of America 004,700,000 4,700,000
Latin America overall subtotal 004,708,748 4,708,748
Argentina Regional Office
Argentina 00107,100 107,100
Argentina Regional Office subtotal 00107,100 107,100
Brazil
Brazil 1,075,680013,895 1,089,574
Central Emergency Response Fund (CERF) 142,31000 142,310
European Union 2,127,16000 2,127,160
International Organization for Migration 304,62200 304,622
Italy 1,213,59300 1,213,593
Japan 3,795,39500 3,795,395
Private donors in Brazil 001,468,947 1,468,947
Private donors in Switzerland 10000 100
UN Women 56,81800 56,818
United States of America 6,356,79602,000,000 8,356,796
Brazil subtotal 15,072,47303,482,842 18,555,315
Colombia
Austria 1,141,55300 1,141,553
Central Emergency Response Fund (CERF) 557,476699,9150 1,257,391
European Union 5,664,025390,1920 6,054,217
Food and Agriculture Organization 0236,9680 236,968
France 375,00000 375,000
Japan 2,534,96200 2,534,962
Portugal 68,75700 68,757
Post-Conflict MPTF for Colombia 0163,6020 163,602
Private donors in Switzerland 4,5040556 5,060
Private donors in the United States of America 42,80000 42,800
Republic of Korea 500,0001,592,5750 2,092,575
Spain 481,514238,1180 719,632
Switzerland 001,004,016 1,004,016
UN Peacebuilding Fund 0201,0510 201,051
UN Trust Fund for Human Security 0245,4000 245,400
United States of America 13,600,00002,500,000 16,100,000
Colombia subtotal 24,970,5903,767,8203,504,572 32,242,982
Costa Rica
European Union 684,93200 684,932
United States of America 5,876,79001,000,000 6,876,790
Costa Rica subtotal 6,561,72201,000,000 7,561,722
Ecuador
Central Emergency Response Fund (CERF) 80,04700 80,047
Colombia 53,16200 53,162
European Union 3,058,59000 3,058,590
Private donors in Germany 37,716016,884 54,599
Private donors in the Netherlands 789,96700 789,967
Switzerland 201,61300 201,613
UN Peacebuilding Fund 463,87500 463,875
UNICEF 22,33400 22,334
United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland 3,99500 3,995
United States of America 10,542,80003,000,000 13,542,800
Ecuador subtotal 15,254,09803,016,884 18,270,982
Mexico
European Union 311,34300 311,343
Private donors in Mexico 228,9820679,923 908,905
Private donors in Switzerland 67,73100 67,731
Private donors in the United States of America 810,0000935,437 1,745,437
United States of America 47,288,79705,321,055 52,609,852
Mexico subtotal 48,706,85306,936,415 55,643,269
Panama Regional Office
Canada 37,99400 37,994
European Union 866,94600 866,946
Spain 468,58300 468,583
Switzerland 502,00800 502,008
UN Peacebuilding Fund 294,51800 294,518
United States of America 8,016,3200800,000 8,816,320
Panama Regional Office subtotal 10,186,3690800,000 10,986,369
Peru
Central Emergency Response Fund (CERF) 235,91700 235,917
Colombia 53,16200 53,162
European Union 1,973,77700 1,973,777
Switzerland 302,41900 302,419
United States of America 6,992,26100 6,992,261
Peru subtotal 9,557,53600 9,557,536
Venezuela (Bolivarian Republic of)
Central Emergency Response Fund (CERF) 1,519,20200 1,519,202
European Union 2,977,12100 2,977,121
France 375,00000 375,000
Italy 613,49700 613,497
Luxembourg 00209,205 209,205
Norway 544,95900 544,959
Private donors in the United States of America 55,00000 55,000
Switzerland 001,004,016 1,004,016
UNAIDS 0050,300 50,300
United States of America 12,300,00000 12,300,000
Venezuela (Bolivarian Republic of) subtotal 18,384,77901,263,521 19,648,300
Venezuela Regional Refugee Coordination Office
European Union 455,06300 455,063
United States of America 1,682,52700 1,682,527
Venezuela Regional Refugee Coordination Office subtotal 2,137,59000 2,137,590
Total 150,832,0103,767,82024,820,082 179,419,912
Note:
Latest contributions
  • 07-AUG-2020
    Austria
    $645,882
  • 04-AUG-2020
    United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland

    private donors

    $521,640
  • 03-AUG-2020
    Japan

    private donors

    $424,465
  • Germany
    $56,962
  • 31-JUL-2020
    Germany

    private donors

    $2,100,001
  • Spain

    private donors

    $7,058,596
  • South Africa

    private donors

    $77,780
  • 30-JUL-2020
    Malaysia

    private donors

    $243,165
  • Greece

    private donors

    $84,751
  • Republic of Korea
    $2,000,000
  • Brazil

    private donors

    $221,506
  • Mexico

    private donors

    $112,545
  • Philippines

    private donors

    $166,819
  • Canada

    private donors

    $370,952
  • Republic of Korea

    private donors

    $7,573,526
  • Thailand

    private donors

    $480,032
  • United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland

    private donors

    $697,211
  • Netherlands

    private donors

    $231,920
  • France

    private donors

    $84,078
  • China

    private donors

    $870,641