North Africa

Operational information on the North Africa subregion is presented below. A summary of this can also be downloaded in PDF format. This subregion covers the following countries and territories:
 

| Algeria | Egypt | Libya | Mauritania | Morocco | Tunisia | Western Sahara

Subregion: North Africa

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The boundaries and names shown and the designations used on this map do not imply official endorsement or acceptance by the United Nations.

 


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Budgets and Expenditure in Subregion North Africa

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2019 {"categories":[2014,2015,2016,2017,2018,2019],"budget":[177.198864558,181.220773542,173.67452757,229.340676434,238.25856056,272.96977094],"expenditure":[99.32585745,92.25388047,97.53519033,126.88229088,127.67430111,139.80670160999998]} {"categories":[2014,2015,2016,2017,2018,2019],"p1":[174.738902408,178.952727542,168.62986455,215.19540843399997,227.59999556,246.00094081999998],"p2":[0.40996215,0.05,null,null,null,null],"p3":[null,null,null,null,null,null],"p4":[2.05,2.218046,5.04466302,14.145268,10.658565,26.96883012]} {"categories":[2014,2015,2016,2017,2018,2019],"p1":[98.85414181,90.38762086,95.21022718,115.9172437,117.66395005,132.72343233],"p2":[0.08869164,0.03162106,null,null,null,null],"p3":[null,null,null,null,null,null],"p4":[0.383024,1.83463855,2.32496315,10.96504718,10.01035106,7.083269280000001]}
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People of Concern - 2019

[["Refugees",429055],["Refugee-like situation",26000],["Asylum-seekers",114892],["IDPs",355672],["Returned IDPs",4369],["Stateless",4],["Others of concern",17]]
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Response in 2019

UNHCR observed a notable increase in both the number of people of concern as well as the needs of refugees, asylum-seekers, IDPs, IDP returnees, migrants, and stateless persons across North Africa in 2019. Due, in part, to continued mixed movements and escalating hostilities in Libya, the overall refugee and asylum-seeker population in the sub-region continued to rise as protection and access concerns become more complex.  
 
UNHCR’s presence in Libya continued to be restricted due to political and security concerns. As clashes broke out in Tripoli, limited access to people of concern impacted UNHCR’s ability to deliver life-saving activities and protection services. Meanwhile, fighting and hostilities led to a 50% rise in IDPs, with 343,200 people recorded as displaced by the end of the year. Emergency evacuations continued throughout the year to Italy, Niger, and Romania, and a new Emergency Transit Mechanism was established in Rwanda. The number of rescues at sea and disembarkations fell by 40%, with some 9,000 persons intercepted by the Libyan Coast Guard. UNHCR faced impediments in accessing and registering people of concern in detention, although the number of people detained reduced by over 50% over the course of the year. Due to security threats and significant overcrowding, UNHCR reevaluated the status of the Gathering and Departure Facility (GDF) as it evolved from a transit and hosting facility towards an open centre. Support focused on urban assistance packages while continuing to find solutions for people of concern living in urban areas.
 
Expanding the protection space remained a central objective across the North Africa sub-region. In Egypt, UNHCR continued to advocate for the inclusion of refugees and asylum-seekers of all nationalities in the public health and education systems. In Morocco, efforts to enhance inclusion and self-sustainability of refugees were advanced through multi-sectoral programmes promoting employment and social cohesion with host communities. As Tunisia saw a threefold increase in registered refugees and asylum-seekers in 2019, UNHCR began emergency preparedness and contingency planning with the Government in the event of a possible influx from Libya. Advocacy continued with the Governments of Algeria, Egypt, Mauritania, Morocco and Tunisia regarding the adoption of national asylum legislation, with UNHCR providing technical guidance and support where necessary.

The greatest unmet needs in the sub-region were recorded in Libya where a combination of active armed conflict, mixed movements of refugees and migrants, restricted access to territory, lack of durable solutions, and limited funding resulted in a highly complex and unfavorable protection environment. Refugees and asylum-seekers, the majority of whom lived in urban areas, became increasingly dependent on UNHCR’s support due to a lack of access to basic national services. Camp-based refugees in Algeria and Mauritania continued to face shortages in food assistance, essential drugs and medical equipment, sanitation services, and drinking water.  

 

Operational Environment

North Africa continues to be a region of transit and destination for refugees and migrants. The total population of concern in North Africa stands at more than 1,041,500 people, including some 465,500 refugees and asylum-seekers (in Algeria, Egypt, Libya, Mauritania, Morocco and Tunisia), as well as close to 193,600 internally displaced people (IDPs) and some 382,200 IDP returnees in Libya.
 
Land rescues and interceptions in the mixed migration context throughout North Africa are expected to continue in 2019. Movements are expected to continue along the Western and Central Mediterranean routes with increased departures from Morocco and Algeria towards Europe.
 
Since June 2018, movements along the Western Mediterranean route have increased, with arrivals from Algeria and Morocco to Spain exceeding the influx from Libya to Italy. Arrivals in Spain almost tripled (30,670 from June to September 2018) when compared to the numbers recorded during the same period last year (10,400 from June to August 2017). Since June, the number of operations at sea conducted by the Libyan Coast Guard has increased, with more than 6,560 people disembarked in Libya and another 440 individuals declared missing or deceased. A decrease in the number of departures was detected from August 2018 onwards.
 
UNHCR continues to advocate for asylum systems to be established across North Africa. In Libya, UNHCR advocates for alternatives to detention and is providing humanitarian assistance in detention centres and at disembarkation points to refugees, asylum-seekers and migrants.
 
UNHCR is working closely with national and local authorities across North Africa to assist urban refugees and asylum-seekers. UNHCR is promoting access of refugees and asylum-seekers to the national educational and health systems, in addition to the regularization of their stay in the different countries.

Strategy and Response

Cooperation will continue with governments and partners to improve access to safety, protection from refoulement, and solutions within existing migration frameworks.
  • In response to the complex population movements associated with shifting routes, UNHCR will further implement its comprehensive strategy, targeting interventions in countries of origin and transit in sub-Saharan Africa and North Africa, and in countries of destination in Europe. Awareness-raising activities and information campaigns will aim to help people make informed decisions about the risks of onward movement and their options, including voluntary return and access to protection services.
  • UNHCR will continue to invest in broad asylum-building and migration management efforts to address the movement of migrants and refugees who embark on perilous journeys across the Sahara Desert and the Mediterranean Sea. There is a need to create more regular, legal and safe pathways for refugees and asylum-seekers to find safety and international protection. Coordination with authorities, UN agencies and civil society will be strengthened to facilitate asylum and migration management in the region. 
  • In Libya specifically, UNHCR will continue to scale-up its resettlement and humanitarian evacuation programmes in addition to voluntary repatriation and return to first country of admission to better serve the needs of refugees, particularly those in detention. Registration and processing of refugee status determination will continue.  
  • UNHCR will continue to support the protracted refugee caseloads in North Africa, specifically in Algeria, Egypt, Mauritania and Morocco. Ongoing efforts to ensure access to basic services and durable solutions will continue. Promotion and implementation of livelihoods programmes will also be strengthened. 

2019 Budget and Expenditure in North Africa | USD

Operation Pillar 1
Refugee programme
Pillar 2
Stateless programme
Pillar 3
Reintegration projects
Pillar 4
IDP projects
Total
Algeria Budget
Expenditure
37,091,284
17,016,854
0
0
0
0
0
0
37,091,284
17,016,854
Egypt Budget
Expenditure
104,156,716
46,118,503
0
0
0
0
0
0
104,156,716
46,118,503
Libya Budget
Expenditure
61,683,093
39,483,378
0
0
0
0
26,968,830
7,083,269
88,651,923
46,566,647
Mauritania Budget
Expenditure
19,348,835
15,586,690
0
0
0
0
0
0
19,348,835
15,586,690
Morocco Budget
Expenditure
8,581,290
6,215,881
0
0
0
0
0
0
8,581,290
6,215,881
Tunisia Budget
Expenditure
7,880,311
6,175,322
0
0
0
0
0
0
7,880,311
6,175,322
Western Sahara (Confidence Building Measures) Budget
Expenditure
7,259,413
2,126,804
0
0
0
0
0
0
7,259,413
2,126,804
Total Budget
Expenditure
246,000,941
132,723,432
0
0
0
0
26,968,830
7,083,269
272,969,771
139,806,702

2019 Voluntary Contributions to North Africa | USD

Earmarking / Donor Pillar 1
Refugee programme
Pillar 4
IDP projects
All
pillars
Total
North Africa overall
Malta 27,35200 27,352
United States of America 002,200,000 2,200,000
North Africa overall subtotal 27,35202,200,000 2,227,352
Algeria
Canada 00303,951 303,951
Denmark 301,93200 301,932
France 250,00000 250,000
Germany 001,112,347 1,112,347
Italy 139,06400 139,064
Norway 1,142,20400 1,142,204
Private donors in Japan 329,31300 329,313
Spain 886,23900 886,239
Sweden 549,9950827,267 1,377,261
United States of America 25,00008,100,000 8,125,000
Algeria subtotal 3,623,746010,343,565 13,967,311
Egypt Regional Office
European Union 3,141,13400 3,141,134
Germany 11,418,73200 11,418,732
Italy 1,293,46500 1,293,465
Japan 0090,302 90,302
Netherlands 2,949,9930210,148 3,160,141
Private donors in Canada 1,16200 1,162
Private donors in China 3,14800 3,148
Private donors in Egypt 5,509056 5,565
Private donors in Indonesia 72700 727
Private donors in Italy 165,01700 165,017
Private donors in Kuwait 64500 645
Private donors in Lebanon 5,78805,026 10,813
Private donors in Oman 52400 524
Private donors in Saudi Arabia 20,3860100 20,486
Private donors in Thailand 3,05700 3,057
Private donors in the United Arab Emirates 25,8890392 26,281
UNICEF 56,00000 56,000
United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland 71,26300 71,263
United States of America 13,400,000012,700,000 26,100,000
Egypt Regional Office subtotal 32,562,438013,006,023 45,568,461
Libya
Canada 00569,909 569,909
Central Emergency Response Fund (CERF) 275,0001,200,0000 1,475,000
Czech Republic 1,069,74800 1,069,748
Denmark 002,945,942 2,945,942
European Union 16,097,943614,2370 16,712,179
France 1,742,42500 1,742,425
Germany 007,747,447 7,747,447
Italy 4,089,6731,189,080568,182 5,846,935
Kuwait 250,00000 250,000
Luxembourg 00523,013 523,013
Norway 329,05800 329,058
Private donors in Canada 00217,167 217,167
Private donors in Germany 00308,454 308,454
Private donors in Italy 003,866 3,866
Private donors in Spain 005,673 5,673
Private donors in the Netherlands 00112 112
Spain 110,01100 110,011
Switzerland 769,71600 769,716
United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland 156,21900 156,219
United States of America 0020,200,000 20,200,000
Libya subtotal 24,889,7933,003,31633,089,765 60,982,874
Mauritania
Canada 00189,970 189,970
Denmark 301,93200 301,932
European Union 2,329,84100 2,329,841
Germany 21,40000 21,400
Italy 184,44200 184,442
Japan 357,14200 357,142
Monaco 113,76600 113,766
Private donors in Canada 82800 828
Private donors in Egypt 27200 272
Private donors in Japan 484,13000 484,130
Private donors in Kuwait 94300 943
Private donors in Lebanon 10,46205,050 15,512
Private donors in Oman 5,90100 5,901
Private donors in Saudi Arabia 1,33102,028 3,359
Private donors in the United Arab Emirates 11,78300 11,783
United States of America 004,900,000 4,900,000
Mauritania subtotal 3,824,17205,097,047 8,921,219
Morocco
Denmark 301,93200 301,932
European Union 332,22400 332,224
Italy 272,29700 272,297
Monaco 160,08500 160,085
Switzerland 00502,008 502,008
UN Trust Fund for Human Security 380,31100 380,311
United States of America 00700,000 700,000
Morocco subtotal 1,446,84901,202,008 2,648,857
Tunisia
Denmark 301,93200 301,932
Italy 1,270,246022,328 1,292,574
Luxembourg 00209,205 209,205
Monaco 85,37900 85,379
Netherlands 280,71500 280,715
Switzerland 266,66600 266,666
United States of America 00600,000 600,000
Tunisia subtotal 2,204,9380831,533 3,036,471
Western Sahara (Confidence Building Measures)
Morocco 0025,184 25,184
United States of America 00400,000 400,000
Western Sahara (Confidence Building Measures) subtotal 00425,184 425,184
Total 68,579,2893,003,31666,195,125 137,777,730
Note:
Latest contributions
  • 07-AUG-2020
    Austria
    $645,882
  • 04-AUG-2020
    United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland

    private donors

    $521,640
  • 03-AUG-2020
    Japan

    private donors

    $424,465
  • Germany
    $56,962
  • 31-JUL-2020
    Germany

    private donors

    $2,100,001
  • Spain

    private donors

    $7,058,596
  • South Africa

    private donors

    $77,780
  • 30-JUL-2020
    Malaysia

    private donors

    $243,165
  • Greece

    private donors

    $84,751
  • Republic of Korea
    $2,000,000
  • Brazil

    private donors

    $221,506
  • Mexico

    private donors

    $112,545
  • Philippines

    private donors

    $166,819
  • Canada

    private donors

    $370,952
  • Republic of Korea

    private donors

    $7,573,526
  • Thailand

    private donors

    $480,032
  • United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland

    private donors

    $697,211
  • Netherlands

    private donors

    $231,920
  • France

    private donors

    $84,078
  • China

    private donors

    $870,641