North Africa

Operational information on the North Africa subregion is presented below. A summary of this can also be downloaded in PDF format. This subregion covers the following countries and territories:
 

| Algeria | Egypt | Libya | Mauritania | Morocco | Tunisia | Western Sahara

Subregion: North Africa

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Budgets and Expenditure in Subregion North Africa

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2020 {"categories":[2015,2016,2017,2018,2019,2020],"budget":[181.220773542,173.67452757,229.340676434,238.25856056,272.96977094,289.55610181000003],"expenditure":[92.25388047,97.53519033,126.88229088,127.67430111,139.80670160999998,162.79472]} {"categories":[2015,2016,2017,2018,2019,2020],"p1":[178.952727542,168.62986455,215.19540843399997,227.59999556,246.00094081999998,262.81576903],"p2":[0.05,null,null,null,null,null],"p3":[null,null,null,null,null,null],"p4":[2.218046,5.04466302,14.145268,10.658565,26.96883012,26.740332780000003]} {"categories":[2015,2016,2017,2018,2019,2020],"p1":[90.38762086,95.21022718,115.9172437,117.66395005,132.72343233,147.33614907],"p2":[0.03162106,null,null,null,null,null],"p3":[null,null,null,null,null,null],"p4":[1.83463855,2.32496315,10.96504718,10.01035106,7.083269280000001,15.45857093]}
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People of Concern - 2020

[["Refugees",453129],["Refugee-like situation",26000],["Asylum-seekers",109700],["IDPs",278177],["Returned IDPs",105414],["Stateless",5],["Others of concern",54]]
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Response in 2020

Ongoing hostilities and security concerns in parts of North Africa and the Sahel gave rise to continued displacement which, coupled with the onset of COVID-19 and associated restrictions on movement, heightened protection risks and vulnerabilities among refugees, asylum-seekers, IDPs, IDP returnees, and stateless persons across the sub-region.

Following heavy hostilities in Libya during the first half of the year, the number of IDPs increased by 30% to 450,000 people by June 2020, before dropping to 278,177 by year’s end. The number of IDP returnees rose concurrently, with 105,414 returning to their place of origin by end-2020. Rescue and interception activities by the Libyan Coast Guard increased by almost 30% compared to 2019, with 11,650 individuals intercepted at sea and returned to Libya, and at least 143 reported deaths. A reliance by authorities on the detention model continued, though on a lower scale: as of end-2020, there were 1,462 individuals in official detention centres, of whom 329 were of concern to UNHCR – marking an 84% decrease from 2019. Following UNHCR’s intervention, 389 people were released from detention in 2020. Due in part to the closure of borders and movement restrictions, the total number of refugees and asylum-seekers in Libya decreased slightly by 8%, though protection needs rose significantly owing to the COVID-19 crisis. While access remained a challenge, particularly during government-imposed lockdowns throughout the pandemic, UNHCR maintained support to refugees and asylum-seekers through urban assistance packages—including food parcels for vulnerable people distributed in partnership with WFP—while continuing to find solutions for people of concern living in urban areas.

UNHCR worked to reinforce the resilience and protect livelihoods of people of concern across the sub-region and include refugees and asylum seekers into national COVID-19 response plans. In Egypt, UNHCR successfully advocated with local authorities to improve the welfare of registered refugees and mitigate the pandemic’s socioeconomic impacts, improving access to health, education, protection services among others. As with other operations in MENA, UNHCR Egypt reinforced the delivery of cash assistance to vulnerable asylum-seeking families, including emergency COVID-19 cash to meet their more immediate needs. Tunisia saw the number of registered refugees and asylum-seekers nearly double for a second consecutive year, with 6,354 total people registered and 1,800 awaiting registration by year’s end. The number of sea arrivals from Tunisia to Italy also rose by 43% from the previous year to 14,685 individuals. Progress was observed towards the inclusion of refugees and asylum-seekers into national services; following a ministerial decree, refugees in Tunisia with proof of official employment were permitted to enrol for national social security services, including health, insurance, and retirement benefits. This was further reinforced during the first ‘Mayor’s Forum on Inclusive Cities in North Africa’ in Tunis, which underscored the need for future continued inclusion and access to national services for people of concern.

Morocco remained a transit country for mixed movements in 2020, while also maintaining its position as a destination for refugees and asylum-seekers. During the year, over 41,800 arrivals to Europe from Morocco were observed—a nearly 70% increase from 2019—with movements along the Central Mediterranean route diminishing and a concurrent rise in arrivals observed in the Canary Islands.  UNHCR worked with partners to ensure people of concern in Morocco had access to healthcare services throughout the COVID-19 pandemic, including through medical hotlines for remote consultations and delivery of medicines to persons with chronic illnesses; over 5,000 refugees benefited from UNHCR supported healthcare services during the year.  
In Algeria, asylum applications and registrations decreased by more than 50 percent compared to 2019, due mostly to COVID-19 related confinement measures and border closure. UNHCR continued registration, RSD, documentation, and protection services for refugees and asylum-seekers living in urban areas, while reinforcing delivery of primary and secondary health services to Sahrawi refugees in Tindouf, in addition to WASH, energy, food, shelter, education and livelihood activities.

Mauritania saw a sudden increase in asylum-seekers in early 2020, with over 1,000 people fleeing hostilities in Mali and crossing into Mauritania—though the closure of borders during the pandemic impacted subsequent arrivals. UNHCR registered 3,375 new individuals in Mauritania in 2020, as well as 7,568 who had not previously registered for asylum. The Operation maintained assistance to refugees in Mbera Camp and surrounding areas, particularly in the areas of health, livelihoods, and education, while delivering cash assistance to mitigate the growing socioeconomic needs due to COVID-19. Meanwhile, Malian refugees were included into Mauritania’s national public health services in Hodh Chargui region, through the support of a World Bank financed programme.

UNHCR maintained advocacy efforts and encouraged capacity-building with the Governments of Algeria, Egypt, Mauritania, Morocco and Tunisia towards the adoption of national asylum legislation, with UNHCR providing technical guidance and support.
The greatest unmet needs in North Africa were in Libya, where despite a ceasefire agreement and significant progress towards electing a unity government, the protection environment remained characterized by restrictive access to territory and lack of durable solutions. The COVID-19 pandemic placed additional strain on social infrastructure, including vital health services, already impacted by years of armed conflict. UNHCR also maintained delivery of life-saving assistance to camp-based refugees in Algeria and Mauritania, who continued to face food shortages and limited access to medical services and medicine, which was further impacted by the COVID-19 situation in the sub-region.

Operational environment

North Africa continues to be a region of transit and destination for refugees and migrants. In 2019, mixed population movements continued within and from the sub-region, some in the hopes of reaching Europe, despite a clampdown on sea rescues by governments and other broader policy changes targeting such flows. The total population of concern in North Africa stands at some 1.2 million people, including 470,000 refugees and asylum-seekers (in Algeria, Egypt, Libya, Mauritania, Morocco and Tunisia), as well as some 300,000 internally displaced people (IDPs) and some 447,000 IDP returnees in Libya. Internal displacement became more pronounced in Libya, when clashes in and around Tripoli restarted in April 2019, returning the country to renewed conflict and negatively impacting on civilians.
 
From January to August 2019, 5,922 people were rescued/intercepted at sea by the Libyan Coast Guard, a decrease of 55% compared to the same period in 2018. In Tunisia, by July 2019, the number of new arrivals (1,180) surpassed the total (1,188) for 2018, a reflection of the deteriorating situation in Libya. With greater movements along the Western Mediterranean route, and a drop in arrivals to Spain by 43% compared to last year, asylum-seeker registrations in Morocco increased by 53% during the first half of 2019 compared to the same period in 2018 – reflecting its position as a place of destination as well as one of transit..
 
In 2020, mixed population movements are expected to continue, though at a lower rate, along the Western and Central Mediterranean routes, mainly from Morocco to Spain with smaller movements from Libya and Tunisia. In this context, sea rescues and interceptions are also expected to continue. Protracted camp situations in Algeria (90,000 Sahrawi refugees) and in Mauritania (over 50,000 Malian refugees) will call for greater engagement with development actors and donors, so that self-reliance opportunities for refugees and their host communities are expanded.
 
Despite high level negotiations that are underway to encourage a resolution to the conflict, the operating environment for UNHCR in Libya is expected to remain very challenging. Nonetheless, capacities of national partners will be strengthened to ensure access to people in need of international protection and humanitarian assistance. UNHCR will continue advocating for an end to detention and for alternatives to be established, that include pursuing durable solutions for refugees. The provision of life-saving humanitarian assistance at Libya detention centres and at disembarkation points to refugees, asylum-seekers and migrants will continue to be a priority, and enhancing assistance for people of concern in urban areas.
 
Across North Africa, UNHCR will continue to cooperate with governments and partners to improve access to safety, protection from refoulement, and solutions within existing migration frameworks. UNHCR will continue working closely with national and local authorities to develop and implement national asylum systems, as well as expand people of concerns’ access to public services and livelihoods opportunities.
 

2020 Budget and Expenditure in North Africa | USD

Operation Pillar 1
Refugee programme
Pillar 2
Stateless programme
Pillar 3
Reintegration projects
Pillar 4
IDP projects
Total
Algeria Budget
Expenditure
34,936,503
20,738,882
0
0
0
0
0
0
34,936,503
20,738,882
Egypt Budget
Expenditure
118,312,434
49,466,411
0
0
0
0
0
0
118,312,434
49,466,411
Libya Budget
Expenditure
57,358,625
39,574,162
0
0
0
0
26,740,333
15,458,571
84,098,958
55,032,733
Mauritania Budget
Expenditure
27,391,889
19,186,526
0
0
0
0
0
0
27,391,889
19,186,526
Morocco Budget
Expenditure
8,500,000
7,144,040
0
0
0
0
0
0
8,500,000
7,144,040
Tunisia Budget
Expenditure
12,316,319
9,211,815
0
0
0
0
0
0
12,316,319
9,211,815
Western Sahara (Confidence Building Measures) Budget
Expenditure
4,000,000
2,014,313
0
0
0
0
0
0
4,000,000
2,014,313
Total Budget
Expenditure
262,815,769
147,336,149
0
0
0
0
26,740,333
15,458,571
289,556,102
162,794,720

2020 Voluntary Contributions to North Africa | USD

Earmarking / Donor Pillar 1
Refugee programme
Pillar 4
IDP projects
All
pillars
Total
North Africa overall
Luxembourg 209,20500 209,205
United States of America 002,100,000 2,100,000
North Africa overall subtotal 209,20502,100,000 2,309,205
Algeria
Canada 00290,909 290,909
European Union 681,81800 681,818
France 285,08800 285,088
Germany 001,100,110 1,100,110
Italy 356,39500 356,395
Norway 1,339,52300 1,339,523
Private donors in Spain 218,34100 218,341
Private donors in the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland 165,64800 165,648
Spain 586,85400 586,854
Sweden 00518,672 518,672
United States of America 2,153,50005,800,000 7,953,500
Algeria subtotal 5,787,16707,709,691 13,496,859
Egypt Regional Office
European Union 8,504,80400 8,504,804
Germany 7,694,08400 7,694,084
Italy 1,823,83900 1,823,839
Japan 0092,764 92,764
Netherlands 2,626,21800 2,626,218
Private donors in Canada 007,556 7,556
Private donors in Egypt 13,63201,218,086 1,231,718
Private donors in Kuwait 1,26500 1,265
Private donors in Lebanon 107,79200 107,792
Private donors in Saudi Arabia 136,2460250,000 386,246
Private donors in Thailand 00222 222
Private donors in the United Arab Emirates 4,90100 4,901
United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland 508,58600 508,586
United Nations Population Fund 280,47600 280,476
United States of America 27,450,04301,000,000 28,450,043
Egypt Regional Office subtotal 49,151,88502,568,629 51,720,514
Libya
Austria 1,782,171389,3820 2,171,553
Canada 00509,091 509,091
European Union 14,348,78600 14,348,786
Germany 005,581,685 5,581,685
Italy 1,018,5631,006,0260 2,024,589
Luxembourg 00209,205 209,205
Netherlands 1,350,0001,600,000955,500 3,905,500
Norway 142,31100 142,311
Private donors in Canada 0099,217 99,217
Private donors in Egypt 0010 10
Private donors in Germany 00334,821 334,821
Private donors in Italy 001,911 1,911
Private donors in Kuwait 00199 199
Private donors in Lebanon 001,484 1,484
Private donors in Saudi Arabia 00209 209
Private donors in the United Arab Emirates 00443 443
Private donors in the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland 0050 50
Switzerland 120,00000 120,000
United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland 888,68100 888,681
United States of America 0016,800,000 16,800,000
Libya subtotal 19,650,5112,995,40824,493,823 47,139,742
Mauritania
African Development Bank 2,667,04200 2,667,042
Canada 00181,818 181,818
Central Emergency Response Fund (CERF) 600,00000 600,000
Denmark 202,35000 202,350
European Union 2,882,38900 2,882,389
Italy 334,82100 334,821
Japan 188,50900 188,509
Monaco 144,05600 144,056
Private donors in Canada 0066 66
Private donors in Egypt 14700 147
Private donors in Kuwait 98,64700 98,647
Private donors in Lebanon 9,02202,272 11,294
Private donors in Oman 5000 50
Private donors in Saudi Arabia 8,71700 8,717
Private donors in the United Arab Emirates 64,52700 64,527
United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland 246,85100 246,851
United States of America 1,600,00005,000,000 6,600,000
Mauritania subtotal 9,047,12905,184,156 14,231,284
Morocco
European Union 1,580,76400 1,580,764
Italy 362,72300 362,723
Monaco 299,21500 299,215
Private donors in Canada 0031,414 31,414
Switzerland 00511,771 511,771
UN Trust Fund for Human Security 338,77500 338,775
United States of America 500,0000400,000 900,000
Morocco subtotal 3,081,4770943,184 4,024,662
Tunisia
European Union 1,563,86800 1,563,868
Italy 1,739,82100 1,739,821
Luxembourg 209,20500 209,205
Monaco 110,01100 110,011
Netherlands 384,22200 384,222
Private donors in Japan 145,37500 145,375
Private donors in the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland 181,69100 181,691
Switzerland 133,33400 133,334
United States of America 800,00000 800,000
WFP 100,00000 100,000
Tunisia subtotal 5,367,52600 5,367,526
Western Sahara (Confidence Building Measures)
Morocco 0024,995 24,995
United States of America 22,39600 22,396
Western Sahara (Confidence Building Measures) subtotal 22,396024,995 47,391
Total 92,317,2962,995,40843,024,478 138,337,183
Note:
Latest contributions
  • 20-SEP-2021
    Italy
    $4,132,231
  • 14-SEP-2021
    Egypt

    private donors

    $127,778
  • Spain

    private donors

    $727,691
  • Spain
    $589,622
  • 09-SEP-2021
    Thailand

    private donors

    $462,107
  • 08-SEP-2021
    Spain

    private donors

    $3,135,977
  • 07-SEP-2021
    Spain
    $858,099
  • 06-SEP-2021
    Australia

    private donors

    $1,094,092
  • 04-SEP-2021
    Spain

    private donors

    $135,052
  • 03-SEP-2021
    Monaco
    $353,774
  • United States of America
    $147,700,000
  • 02-SEP-2021
    Italy

    private donors

    $553,365
  • Switzerland

    private donors

    $163,361
  • 01-SEP-2021
    Japan

    private donors

    $506,288
  • Portugal
    $117,924
  • United States of America

    private donors

    $750,000
  • Denmark

    private donors

    $4,755,865
  • 31-AUG-2021
    Malaysia

    private donors

    $331,556
  • United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland

    private donors

    $68,449
  • Netherlands

    private donors

    $433,887