Latin America

Operational information on the Latin America subregion is presented below. A summary of this can also be downloaded in PDF format. This subregion covers the following countries:
 

Subregion: Latin America

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Budgets and Expenditure in Subregion Latin America

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2018 {"categories":[2013,2014,2015,2016,2017,2018],"budget":[81.47506161,90.21897291,95.444174924,115.39270982,121.597479793,172.21536011],"expenditure":[49.28316719,49.98284571,49.91913141,60.80002753,70.53629212,114.37318446]} {"categories":[2013,2014,2015,2016,2017,2018],"p1":[52.59315683,60.53877343,63.974638204,78.61664868,90.001777063,149.4830097],"p2":[0.49332398,0.5026572,1.10877181,1.1724936,1.72743748,1.17585492],"p3":[null,null,null,null,null,null],"p4":[28.3885808,29.17754228,30.36076491,35.60356754,29.86826525,21.55649549]} {"categories":[2013,2014,2015,2016,2017,2018],"p1":[30.02328795,32.20327782,34.30039144,43.1545312,55.02505765,101.93385011],"p2":[0.38903674,0.26571356,0.97657094,0.90564873,1.14798111,0.57597729],"p3":[null,null,null,null,null,null],"p4":[18.8708425,17.51385433,14.64216903,16.7398476,14.36325336,11.86335706]}
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People of Concern - 2018

[["Refugees",105931],["Refugee-like situation",108776],["Asylum-seekers",502504],["IDPs",8061972],["Returned refugees",23900],["Stateless",110],["Others of concern",209069],["Venezuelans displaced abroad",2456989]]
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The protection and assistance needs in Latin America increased dramatically in 2018. The deterioration of the situation in the Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela resulted in over 3 million Venezuelans fleeing to other countries in Latin America and the Caribbean, and beyond. Venezuelans fled their homes at an average of 5,000 people a day.
 
Furthermore, displacement resulting from gang violence and organized crime in and from the North of Central America (NCA) continued throughout the year. By mid-2018, there were 312,000 refugees and asylum-seekers from the NCA. Internal displacement also increased as many families sought protection within their own country. In addition, an annual average of 200,000 people have been deported to NCA countries over the last five years, many with protection needs. 
 
States increasingly institutionalised asylum and refugee management responses in line with international and regional protection principles. Asylum applications significantly increased in the region. However, these do not reflect the scale of people in need of international protection and remain disproportionally limited when compared to other forms of timely responses such as alternative legal stay arrangements under national and regional frameworks. While some of these measures succeeded in temporarily ensuring access to basic services for about 1 million Venezuelans, they did not necessarily contain protection safeguards against return, access to shelter, health, education, employment, freedom of movement and family reunification, among others.
 
In February 2018, countries from the region agreed on the 100 Points of Brasilia during the first triennial evaluation of the 2014 Brazil Declaration and Plan of Action. The document lists one hundred of the best practices for ensuring the protection of and solutions for asylum-seekers, refugees, returnees, displaced and stateless persons. It also represents an important contribution on behalf of Latin American and Caribbean States to the Global Compact on Refugees.
 
Belize, Costa Rica, Guatemala, Honduras, Mexico and Panama worked together on the implementation of the regional Comprehensive Refugee Response Framework for Central America and Mexico (MIRPS in Spanish) to foster regional cooperation between countries of origin, transit and destination for greater responsibility-sharing on prevention, protection and solutions. The MIRPS promoted an inclusive approach, encouraging engagement with development actors in developing a common strategy to address displacement at its root causes of structural violence in the sub-region.

Operational Environment and Strategy


Since the signature of the peace agreement in December 2016, the Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia (FARC) have begun disarming and reintegrating into civilian communities.  The FARC have since turned over more than 7,000 weapons. However, illegal armed groups continue to resort to violence vying for territorial control and forced displacement is expected to continue particularly along the Pacific Coast and the border region, affecting mainly Afro-Colombian and indigenous communities. In 2018, the Operation in Colombia will implement a multi-year multi-partner protection and solutions strategy 2018-2020 for IDP prevention and solutions and international protection and emergency response for the Venezuelan arrivals. UNHCR will work closely with the UN Verification Mission to ensure its awareness of protection and solutions issues, and continue to strengthen its alliances with development actors to facilitate durable solutions for IDPs. In Ecuador, UNHCR will continue to provide support to strengthen national asylum systems and to work towards durable solutions.
 
The growing trend of forced displacement from and within El Salvador, Guatemala and Honduras – also known as the North of Central America (NCA) – continued increasing significantly during 2017, with more than 215,000 refugees and asylum-seekers from the NCA registered in the sub-region by mid-2017. While displacement in and from the NCA is multifaceted and has multiple causes, violence and insecurity continue to be major factors compelling people to move. Traditionally, NCA citizens seek international protection in Canada and the United States of America. However, in the last two years, UNHCR has witnessed a significant increase in the number of asylum-seekers from the NCA in Belize, Costa Rica, Mexico and Panama. Guatemala is also increasingly being perceived by people of concern not only as a country of transit, but as a country of asylum.
 
The Comprehensive Regional Protection and Solutions Framework (CPRSF), a States-led process of solid initiatives taken by the North and Central American countries to strengthen protection and solutions measures, was developed in line with the 2016 New York Declaration on Refugees and Migrants, its Comprehensive Refugee Response Framework as well as previous regional efforts such as the Brazil Plan of Action and the San Jose Action Statement. Belize, Costa Rica, Guatemala, Honduras, Mexico and Panama have so far joined the CPRSF through the development of national action plans and regional cooperation mechanisms. Building on the solidarity and responsibility-sharing mechanisms in the region, the CPRSF will support States in fully implementing their commitments, while identifying and addressing remaining gaps through integrated responses involving a broader range of stakeholders and mobilizing additional resources for implementation. In parallel with the regional response, in 2018 UNHCR will continue to work with partners to build strong asylum systems; establish mechanisms to respond to urgent protection risks faced by IDPs and other people affected by violence; identify and protect returnees with protection needs; and find durable solutions for all people of concern. UNHCR’s response also ensures safe transit by establishing protection networks along the main migration routes and providing humanitarian assistance, with a special focus on the most vulnerable.
 
The deteriorating situation in Venezuela has continued to generate population outflows. The number of asylum applications lodged by Venezuelans around the world rose to around 48,500 from January through 19 September 2017.  This is a considerable increase over 2016, which saw 34,000 claims lodged by year end.  The countries receiving the highest number of asylum applications are Brazil, Costa Rica, Mexico, Peru, Spain and the United States of America. The ongoing outflows from Venezuela have posed a number of challenges, and despite the efforts of host countries to generously meet increasing needs, a strengthened response is required in the areas of physical security, documentation, as well as sexual and gender-based violence (SGBV), and exploitation and abuse. In 2017, UNHCR activated its internal Emergency Level 1 to signal the need for “proactive preparedness” in the event of an emergency involving people leaving Venezuela. In 2018, UNHCR will continue to work with partners to strengthen its presence in the border areas of neighbouring countries to better provide humanitarian assistance including through multi-purpose cash grants, and to support government registration, documentation, and access to refugee status determination (RSD) processes or alternative legal pathways with protection safeguards.
 
Argentina, Brazil and Chile will continue to set an example as emerging resettlement countries with re-designed resettlement and private sponsorship programmes, and will continue to receive families affected by the conflict in Syria and from the North of Central America.
 
Countries in the region continue to work under the Brazil Plan of Action (BPA), the regional framework for cooperation and responsibility-sharing in Latin America and the Caribbean. The triennial evaluation of the BPA on the chapters relating to statelessness, solutions and quality of asylum will feed into the global compact for refugees through a regional conference in Brasilia in February 2018.
 
The ongoing increase in the number of persons seeking asylum over the last few years has put a strain on asylum systems in the region. As this is likely to continue through 2018, UNHCR will continue to invest in asylum systems building and strategic case management through the Quality Assurance Initiative (QAI).
 
The budgetary requirements for Latin America have increased since last year to bolster its presence and monitoring capacity in border areas in response to increased arrivals from Venezuela, the growing needs in the North of Central America and continued stabilization efforts in Colombia.
 
Financial shortfalls will seriously affect UNHCR’s capacity to respond to these situations and to continue supporting the implementation of the Brazil Plan of Action, the Quality Assurance Initiative and the implementation of multi-year protection and solutions strategies.
 
The largest budget requirements are related to the following objectives: (i) improved of reception conditions and border monitoring, (ii) improved access to quality status determination, (iii) potential for integration realized and (iv) women’s empowerment, child protection and SGBV prevention and response.

2018 Budget and Expenditure in Latin America | USD

Operation Pillar 1
Refugee programme
Pillar 2
Stateless programme
Pillar 3
Reintegration projects
Pillar 4
IDP projects
Total
Argentina Regional Office Budget
Expenditure
12,731,687
10,512,681
168,745
90,475
0
0
0
0
12,900,432
10,603,157
Brazil Budget
Expenditure
15,796,898
12,151,125
175,992
167,383
0
0
0
0
15,972,889
12,318,509
Colombia Budget
Expenditure
12,571,882
11,029,170
0
0
0
0
21,556,495
11,863,357
34,128,378
22,892,527
Costa Rica Budget
Expenditure
12,085,994
8,338,937
0
0
0
0
0
0
12,085,994
8,338,937
Ecuador Budget
Expenditure
21,343,547
12,452,143
0
0
0
0
0
0
21,343,547
12,452,143
Mexico Budget
Expenditure
24,309,789
16,911,728
0
0
0
0
0
0
24,309,789
16,911,728
Panama Regional Office Budget
Expenditure
27,001,119
19,026,621
0
0
0
0
0
0
27,001,119
19,026,621
Regional Legal Unit Costa Rica Budget
Expenditure
3,971,018
2,460,465
831,118
318,119
0
0
0
0
4,802,136
2,778,583
Venezuela (Bolivarian Republic of) Budget
Expenditure
15,480,616
6,499,021
0
0
0
0
0
0
15,480,616
6,499,021
Regional activities Budget
Expenditure
4,190,460
2,551,959
0
0
0
0
0
0
4,190,460
2,551,959
Total Budget
Expenditure
149,483,010
101,933,850
1,175,855
575,977
0
0
21,556,495
11,863,357
172,215,360
114,373,184

2018 Voluntary Contributions to Latin America | USD

Earmarking / Donor Pillar 1
Refugee programme
Pillar 4
IDP projects
All
pillars
Total
Latin America overall
Private donors in Mexico 003,231,710 3,231,710
United States of America 0010,500,000 10,500,000
Latin America overall subtotal 0013,731,710 13,731,710
Argentina Regional Office
Argentina 00107,100 107,100
Argentina Regional Office subtotal 00107,100 107,100
Brazil
Brazil 0033,235 33,235
Central Emergency Response Fund (CERF) 1,155,03200 1,155,032
European Union 1,765,07800 1,765,078
International Organization for Migration 190,29100 190,291
Italy 296,20900 296,209
Luxembourg 261,50600 261,506
Private donors in Brazil 00952,377 952,377
Private donors in Japan 48,81300 48,813
United States of America 5,500,00000 5,500,000
Brazil subtotal 9,216,9290985,612 10,202,541
Colombia
Central Emergency Response Fund (CERF) 1,180,07600 1,180,076
European Union 1,133,126330,2470 1,463,373
France 500,00000 500,000
Italy 296,20900 296,209
Post-Conflict MPTF for Colombia 0311,6040 311,604
Private donors in Japan 112,53500 112,535
Private donors in Switzerland 0100,00064 100,064
Republic of Korea 01,390,4120 1,390,412
Spain 571,429285,7140 857,143
Switzerland 0508,1300 508,130
United States of America 4,400,00001,400,000 5,800,000
Colombia subtotal 8,193,3742,926,1071,400,064 12,519,545
Costa Rica
Luxembourg 00366,109 366,109
Private donors in the United States of America 11,04800 11,048
United States of America 4,225,29500 4,225,295
Costa Rica subtotal 4,236,3430366,109 4,602,451
Ecuador
Central Emergency Response Fund (CERF) 473,93800 473,938
European Union 370,37000 370,370
Private donors in Italy 8500 85
United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland 16,18200 16,182
United States of America 234,24001,100,000 1,334,240
Ecuador subtotal 1,094,81501,100,000 2,194,815
Mexico
European Union 97,50900 97,509
Private donors in Mexico 866,13000 866,130
Private donors in Switzerland 269,07000 269,070
Private donors in the United States of America 535,00000 535,000
Spain 457,14300 457,143
United States of America 7,480,00000 7,480,000
Mexico subtotal 9,704,85200 9,704,852
Panama Regional Office
Central Emergency Response Fund (CERF) 192,60100 192,601
Denmark 120,00000 120,000
European Union 1,672,54200 1,672,542
Germany 00568,182 568,182
Private donors in China 5,36200 5,362
Private donors in Thailand 7,20400 7,204
Spain 685,71400 685,714
Switzerland 508,13000 508,130
UN Peacebuilding Fund 676,53600 676,536
United States of America 1,786,03600 1,786,036
Panama Regional Office subtotal 5,654,1260568,182 6,222,308
Venezuela (Bolivarian Republic of)
European Union 1,603,05900 1,603,059
Holy See 5,00000 5,000
Switzerland 209,42400 209,424
UNAIDS 0044,000 44,000
Venezuela (Bolivarian Republic of) subtotal 1,817,483044,000 1,861,483
Total 39,917,9212,926,10718,302,777 61,146,804
Note:
Latest contributions
  • 11-OCT-2019
    European Union
    $109,410
  • Netherlands
    $2,352,940
  • Liechtenstein
    $403,227
  • 10-OCT-2019
    Germany
    $116,073
  • 07-OCT-2019
    United States of America

    private donors

    $281,359
  • 03-OCT-2019
    United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland
    $12,931,034
  • 02-OCT-2019
    Denmark
    $3,663,004
  • Germany
    $2,188,184
  • 30-SEP-2019
    Malaysia

    private donors

    $163,071
  • United States of America

    private donors

    $295,000
  • Netherlands

    private donors

    $137,178
  • France

    private donors

    $92,258
  • Mexico

    private donors

    $60,259
  • Italy

    private donors

    $1,594,953
  • Spain

    private donors

    $6,715,150
  • Kuwait
    $12,000,000
  • Denmark
    $16,202,681
  • Philippines

    private donors

    $139,349
  • United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland

    private donors

    $173,377
  • Republic of Korea

    private donors

    $3,843,047