Latin America

Operational information on the Latin America subregion is presented below. A summary of this can also be downloaded in PDF format. This subregion covers the following countries:
 

Subregion: Latin America

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Budgets and Expenditure in Subregion Latin America

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2017 {"categories":[2012,2013,2014,2015,2016,2017],"budget":[79.53074536,81.47506161,90.21897291,95.444174924,115.39270982,121.597479793],"expenditure":[48.63445077,49.28316719,49.98284571,49.91913141,60.80002753,70.53629212]} {"categories":[2012,2013,2014,2015,2016,2017],"p1":[51.17752601,52.59315683,60.53877343,63.974638204,78.61664868,90.001777063],"p2":[null,0.49332398,0.5026572,1.10877181,1.1724936,1.72743748],"p3":[null,null,null,null,null,null],"p4":[28.35321935,28.3885808,29.17754228,30.36076491,35.60356754,29.86826525]} {"categories":[2012,2013,2014,2015,2016,2017],"p1":[31.54987575,30.02328795,32.20327782,34.30039144,43.1545312,55.02505765],"p2":[null,0.38903674,0.26571356,0.97657094,0.90564873,1.14798111],"p3":[null,null,null,null,null,null],"p4":[17.08457502,18.8708425,17.51385433,14.64216903,16.7398476,14.36325336]}
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People of Concern - 2017

[["Refugees",91265],["Refugee-like situation",159934],["Asylum-seekers",177268],["IDPs",7923109],["Returned refugees",203],["Stateless",391],["Others of concern",461615]]
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Response in 2017

The first year of implementation of the provisions of Colombia’s peace agreement with the Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia (FARC) presented various challenges. Communities in several regions of Colombia continued to be affected by the presence of armed groups and unlawful activities, such as drug trafficking and illegal mining. The demobilization of the FARC also left a power vacuum in areas that then became disputed by armed actors and other dissidents. By the end of 2017, there were 7.7 million IDPs in Colombia. The Office continued to actively liaise with the second UN political mission in Colombia which succeeded the former one in September 2017 and shifted from monitoring the disarmament of former combatants to verifying their political, economic and social reintegration.
 
Ongoing displacement in the North of Central America (NCA) has had multiple causes, including violence and insecurity. NCA citizens have traditionally sought international protection in Canada and the United States of America. However, in the past two years, there was a very significant increase in the number of asylum-seekers from the NCA in Belize, Costa Rica, Mexico and Panama. More than 294,000 asylum seekers and refugees from the North of Central America were registered globally as of the end of 2017, an increase of 58 per cent from a year earlier.  UNHCR continued to work with governments to ensure: access to territory and asylum procedures; provision of immediate humanitarian assistance; secure solutions for people with urgent protection needs, including through resettlement; and humanitarian evacuation through the protection transfer arrangement (PTA) and relocation.
 
As a demonstration of the sub-regional political will, Belize, Costa Rica, Guatemala, Honduras, Mexico and Panama adopted the San Pedro Sula Declaration in Honduras in October 2017, which prompted the launch of the regional iteration of the Comprehensive Refugee Response Framework (CRRF) for Central America and Mexico, known as MIRPS in its Spanish acronym, where States committed to strengthen protection and expand solutions in the region, with the support of all relevant actors, and to work together to further enhance regional cooperation and shared responsibility mechanisms.
 
The deterioration of the socioeconomic and political situation in the Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela, including the lack of access to medicine, health care and other basic necessities, triggered the movement of an estimated 1.5 million Venezuelans to neighboring countries and beyond. The main countries of destination are Brazil, Colombia, Costa Rica, Mexico, Peru, Spain and the United States of America. According to figures provided by host governments, more than 146,000 Venezuelans have lodged asylum claims since 2014, over half of these in 2017 alone. Another 444,000 Venezuelans have accessed alternative legal forms of stayed under national or regional frameworks. In 2017, UNHCR started working with governments and other partners across the continent to establish a coordinated and comprehensive response to support displaced Venezuelans and the communities hosting them.
 
UNHCR continued to offer support for capacity-building and technical advice within the quality assurance initiative (QAI) framework. Ecuador joined the QAI programme in 2017, bringing the number of countries in the region aiming to enhance fairness and efficiencies in their asylum systems to ten.
 
Local integration is taken to the next level with the adoption of public policies for the effective inclusion into host countries of refugees and stateless persons. In Ecuador, the ‘graduation approach’ enabled more than 1,800 families to move towards self-reliance. Costa Rica continued to integrate refugees through initiatives jointly developed with the public and private sectors, such as the living integration project—a corporate social responsibility scheme promoting refugees’ access to the labour market. Mexico continued to implement a relocation scheme to transfer refugees from the country’s economically-depressed southern States to industrial corridor States, matching them with job opportunities. The Cities of Solidarity Initiative is testimony to the way local governments in the region directly engage in solutions, socioeconomic and cultural inclusion of refugees.
 
Moving fast towards the eradication of statelessness, Chile and Haiti acceded to the statelessness conventions in 2017, while Brazil, Colombia, Costa Rica, Cuba and Ecuador adopted legal measures to prevent statelessness, facilitate naturalisation of stateless persons and establish statelessness determination procedures.
 
Argentina, Brazil and Chile progressed in the design and implementation of their respective resettlement and community-based sponsorship programmes, with support of the Emergent Resettlement Country Support Mechanism (ERCM).

 

Operational Environment and Strategy


At the close of four years of intense negotiations with the Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia (FARC), a final peace agreement was signed on 26 September 2016 and put to a nationwide referendum on 2 October 2016.  In a surprise outcome, Colombians voted to reject the peace deal, with the no vote leading by a margin of less than 1 percent. A revised peace agreement, mentioning UNHCR’s role in supporting the protection of IDP rights, was announced in mid-November and is expected to be put to a congressional vote before the end of 2016 to start implementation in 2017. Despite this, UNHCR, together with the UN, welcomed the commitment to maintain a ceasefire and work towards building a lasting peace.  UNHCR will closely monitor the situation as it evolves and continue to provide protection and seek solutions for Colombians who are internally displaced or refugees.

Competition between armed groups and criminal organizations has resulted in violence and displacement, although numbers have reduced in recent years, especially in remote and border areas.  UNHCR will continue to assist people of concern as needed.

Efforts to improve documentation for Colombians in Venezuela (Bolivarian Republic of) are being undertaken with the support of the Government, namely through a profiling exercise, to identify people in need of international protection.  In Ecuador, UNHCR continues to work closely with its partners and the authorities to pursue the integration of people of concern, 95 per cent of whom are Colombian, and address their protection needs.  An agreement on the enrolment of refugees in the civil registry database, which was reached between the Civil Registry and the Ministry of Foreign Affairs and Human Mobility in September 2016, will facilitate access to basic services and employment in Ecuador.  In this regard, UNHCR will cover the cost of enrolment.  With respect to the local integration of Colombians in Costa Rica, UNHCR will focus on gradually improving refugee access to the national social, development, employment and poverty reduction programmes. UNHCR will also address issues relating to the cost of refugee documentation and other administrative barriers.

In Central America, a round table, organized by UNHCR and the Organization of American States (OAS) in San José, Costa Rica, brought together government officials from countries in North and Central America, other interested States, intergovernmental organizations, as well as civil society and relevant humanitarian and academic partners, to discuss the challenges of meeting the protection needs of those affected by the situation in El Salvador, Guatemala and Honduras. At the close of the round table, nine countries released the San José Action Statement, committing to work together to prevent and address the root causes of displacement in countries of origin; enhance asylum and protection responses in countries of transit, destination and asylum; and foster regional cooperation.  The countries concerned agreed to implement commitments as well as individual actions at the national and regional level, with the support of UNHCR and OAS.  A follow-up mechanism was also established to help measure progress.

In the Southern Cone, countries expressed solidarity with countries such as the Syrian Arab Republic, El Salvador, Guatemala and Honduras, by offering various legal pathways for persons of concern, including resettlement and humanitarian visas. Through the “cities of solidarity” programme, UNHCR continues to coordinate with municipalities in the Americas to improve integration opportunities for refugees and together with Refugee Commissions, remove obstacles to local integration. Another key priority will be to implement the recommendations of the Quality Assurance Initiative with participating countries. The MERCOSUR National Refugee Commission Presidents’ Forum will remain a valuable space where UNHCR can advance favorable refugee protection measures. 

As the Brazil Plan of Action enters its third year of implementation, UNHCR will support consultations among States in the region and civil society to measure progress in its implementation. 

2017 Budget and Expenditure in Latin America | USD

Operation Pillar 1
Refugee programme
Pillar 2
Stateless programme
Pillar 3
Reintegration projects
Pillar 4
IDP projects
Total
Argentina Regional Office Budget
Expenditure
5,856,262
4,308,905
215,073
207,270
0
0
0
0
6,071,336
4,516,175
Brazil Budget
Expenditure
5,670,375
4,338,126
189,875
133,903
0
0
0
0
5,860,249
4,472,029
Colombia Budget
Expenditure
2,234,602
1,976,883
0
0
0
0
26,868,265
14,363,253
29,102,868
16,340,136
Costa Rica Budget
Expenditure
6,054,072
4,004,841
409,983
335,081
0
0
0
0
6,464,055
4,339,921
Ecuador Budget
Expenditure
18,807,945
11,332,827
0
0
0
0
3,000,000
0
21,807,945
11,332,827
Mexico Budget
Expenditure
14,732,287
9,617,442
0
0
0
0
0
0
14,732,287
9,617,442
Panama Regional Office Budget
Expenditure
22,672,194
12,700,587
0
0
0
0
0
0
22,672,194
12,700,587
Regional Legal Unit Costa Rica Budget
Expenditure
3,157,492
1,797,076
912,506
471,728
0
0
0
0
4,069,998
2,268,804
Venezuela (Bolivarian Republic of) Budget
Expenditure
8,667,207
4,074,329
0
0
0
0
0
0
8,667,207
4,074,329
Regional activities Budget
Expenditure
2,149,340
874,041
0
0
0
0
0
0
2,149,340
874,041
Total Budget
Expenditure
90,001,777
55,025,058
1,727,437
1,147,981
0
0
29,868,265
14,363,253
121,597,480
70,536,292

2017 Voluntary Contributions to Latin America | USD

Earmarking / Donor Pillar 1
Refugee programme
Pillar 4
IDP projects
All
pillars
Total
Latin America overall
Canada 995,39500 995,395
Denmark 500,00000 500,000
Private donors in Brazil 0019,219 19,219
Private donors in Canada 00343,357 343,357
Private donors in Spain 001,590,248 1,590,248
Private donors in Switzerland 002,914 2,914
Private donors in the United States of America 0014,204 14,204
United States of America 009,200,000 9,200,000
Latin America overall subtotal 1,495,395011,169,943 12,665,338
Argentina Regional Office
Argentina 00113,900 113,900
Argentina Regional Office subtotal 00113,900 113,900
Brazil
Brazil 00662,778 662,778
International Organization for Migration 193,65800 193,658
Private donors in Brazil 00308,199 308,199
Private donors in Switzerland 297,95000 297,950
United States of America 936,29200 936,292
WFP 100,00000 100,000
Brazil subtotal 1,527,9000970,977 2,498,877
Colombia
European Union 0213,4470 213,447
Germany 0035,548 35,548
Private donors in Colombia 03,4200 3,420
Private donors in Germany 00710,900 710,900
Private donors in Italy 054,2890 54,289
Private donors in Japan 029,6700 29,670
Private donors in Switzerland 0140,0000 140,000
Spain 0559,9100 559,910
Switzerland 0690,3350 690,335
United States of America 1,099,22800 1,099,228
Colombia subtotal 1,099,2281,691,072746,449 3,536,748
Costa Rica
Private donors in Japan 02,5800 2,580
United States of America 404,18800 404,188
Costa Rica subtotal 404,1882,5800 406,768
Ecuador
European Union 160,08500 160,085
Private donors in Canada 0020 20
Private donors in Italy 188021 210
Private donors in the United States of America 00112 112
Ecuador subtotal 160,2740153 160,427
Mexico
Canada 9,66500 9,665
European Union 81,33600 81,336
Private donors in Mexico 546,14800 546,148
Private donors in Switzerland 248048 296
Private donors in the Netherlands 0026,681 26,681
Spain 727,25800 727,258
UNAIDS 83,85000 83,850
Mexico subtotal 1,448,505026,729 1,475,234
Panama Regional Office
Denmark 260,00000 260,000
European Union 639,15800 639,158
UN Peacebuilding Fund 162,50000 162,500
United States of America 784,36200 784,362
Panama Regional Office subtotal 1,846,02000 1,846,020
Venezuela (Bolivarian Republic of)
European Union 160,08500 160,085
UNAIDS 28,57000 28,570
United States of America 546,20000 546,200
Venezuela (Bolivarian Republic of) subtotal 734,85500 734,855
Total 8,716,3651,693,65213,028,151 23,438,168
Note: