East and Horn of Africa
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Budgets and Expenditure in Subregion East and Horn of Africa
People of Concern - 2018[["Refugees",4348754],["Asylum-seekers",128377],["IDPs",9171461],["Returned refugees",232169],["Stateless",18500],["Others of concern",231310]]
Response in 2018In 2018, East and Horn of Africa remained one of the most unstable and complex sub-regions in the continent with instability, protracted political strife arising from local and national grievances and inter-communal conflicts coupled with human rights violations in some parts.
The sub-region is host to South Sudan and Somalia situations - the two of the largest refugee crises in the world. In addition to displacement resulting from these two situations, the sub-region is hosting large numbers of refugees and asylum-seekers from the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) and Sudan. At year-end, the number of refugees and asylum-seekers in the sub-region exceeded 4.02 million, with the largest caseloads in Uganda (1.2 million), Sudan (1.1 million), and Ethiopia (905,000).
The number of IDPs in the sub-region exceeded 9 million by the end of the year, including more than 2.6 million IDPs in both Ethiopia and Somalia, and close to 1.9 million in both South Sudan and Sudan. While 80% of IDPs were displaced due to conflict, drought further exacerbated this displacement. In Ethiopia, for example, it is estimated that approximately 20% of IDPs were displaced for climate-related reasons, and in Somalia, 1.4 million of the approximately 2.6 million IDPs were displaced by the 2016-2017 drought. The majority of IDPs remain in need of emergency humanitarian assistance, and some 1.3 million IDPs are in particular need of improved shelter and NFI support. In addition to prioritizing the provision of core relief items, protection and return monitoring, UNHCR also engaged in area-based reintegration programming in partnership with the Government of Somalia and other stakeholders.
Progress was made in the sub-region in terms of legislative reform, with the most notable achievement taking place in December 2018, when South Sudan acceded to the 1951 Convention relating to the Status of Refugees. UNHCR also welcomed progress on Ethiopia’s historic refugee proclamation, which will enable refugees to acquire work permits; access primary education; obtain drivers’ licenses; register life events such as births and marriages; and open bank accounts.
Efforts to achieve durable solutions on behalf of refugees were sustained throughout the sub-region, with some 5,298 refugees resettled from Kenya and Uganda, while another 1,759 were assisted for voluntary repatriation to Sudan. In Eritrea, despite stepping up UNHCR’s presence and coverage, the relationship with the Government remained challenging, thereby frustrating all efforts to implement the two-prong strategy notably aiming at assisting the voluntary repatriation and resettlement to third countries of more than 1,000 Somali refugees, while actively engaging with relevant stakeholders with a view of contributing to solving the root causes of forced displacement, inter alia.
The Global Compact for Refugees emphasizes the importance of economic inclusion in achieving protection and solutions for refugees and especially, those living in protracted situations. To achieve the economic inclusion requires active engagement with a broad range of actors, leveraging their respective comparative advantages and specializations, therefore, UNHCR worked with a large range of development actors in Ethiopia. The operation engaged these diverse actors to further advocacy efforts with the Government of Ethiopia, contributing to the passing of the new proclamation.
The security situation in most areas of South Sudan improved as a result of the Revitalized Agreement on the Resolution of the Conflict in the Republic of South Sudan (R-ARCSS), signed on 12 September 2018. By the end of 2018 there was a decline in military engagements which allowed humanitarian operations to be implemented with minimal interruptions across the country, except for a few areas in Central and Western Equatoria and led to the increase in the number of spontaneous refugee returns to about 136,000.
By the end of 2018, violence and instability in Somalia resulted in more internal displacement. The number of IDPs increased to more than 2.6 million IDPs, with over 800,000 Somalis seeking refuge in neighbouring countries and Yemen. The protection and operational environment in Somalia remained complex and unpredictable due to continuing insecurity in many parts, as well as related food insecurity.
At year-end, Kenya was hosting some 471,700 refugees and asylum-seekers. The formal declaration of Kenya as a CRRF country in late 2017 and the roll out of the MYMP in 2018 enhanced the delivery of protection and solution strategy in Kenya. This was supported by the World Bank led eligibility process for Kenya to access the IDA18 refugee sub-window in February 2018.
Throughout 2018, Uganda continued to receive refugees mainly from the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC), South Sudan and Burundi, maintaining an open-door policy for forcibly displaced people, granting prima facie refugee status to asylum-seeking persons from the DRC and South Sudan. A joint verification exercise took place, registering the entire refugee population using the biometric identity management system (BIMS) and proGres v4, UNHCR’s registration system. At year end, the refugee and asylum-seeking population in Uganda stood at close to 1.2 million.
Due to limited resources, continuous deterioration of security and increasing logistical challenges, substantial gaps in UNHCR’s ability to meeting the protection and assistance needs of people of concern in the sub-region remain.
East and Horn of Africa continues to be characterised by displacement driven by the recent and protracted conflicts, and drought, which has led to increasing food insecurity and the threat of famine in Somalia and South Sudan. In 2017, the subregion hosts some 3.2 million refugees, mainly from the Democratic Republic of the Congo, Somalia and South Sudan, and nearly 5.76 million internally displaced people (IDPs) in Somalia, South Sudan and Sudan at the end of October 2017 according to OCHA. The war in Yemen continues to affect the subregion, with more than 95,000 refugees, third-country nationals and others fleeing to Djibouti, Ethiopia, Somalia and the Sudan since the war began in 2015.
Somalia remains one of the most protracted displacement situations globally, with nearly 850,000 refugees in Djibouti, Ethiopia, Kenya, Uganda and Yemen, in addition to some 1.56 million IDPs. Political instability and insecurity, particularly in southern and central Somalia, as well as an unstable economy, limited livelihood opportunities, environmental degradation and severe droughts, contribute to this protracted crisis.
The South Sudan situation continues to be the largest and most complex emergency in Africa, with 2 million refugees in the sub-region, in addition to the 2 million South Sudanese who are internally displaced. The political and security situation inside the country remains volatile, with armed conflict persisting, killings, abductions, rape, and a general state of lawlessness. Severe food insecurity further exacerbates the situation, leading to massive internal displacement as well as movements across borders, with many refugee children facing alarming levels of malnutrition. The toll on neighbouring countries is high. Uganda hosts the largest number of South Sudanese refugees, with more slightly than 1 million, followed by Sudan, Ethiopia, Kenya, the Democratic Republic of the Congo and the Central African Republic. In 2018, UNHCR will continue to focus on life-saving and life-sustaining assistance for South Sudanese refugees, including the provision of basic services and meeting the immediate needs of new arrivals from South Sudan in neighbouring countries.
The number of refugees from Sudan currently stands at 650,000, hosted mainly by Chad and South Sudan, and there are some 2.3 million IDPs in need of humanitarian assistance. Similarly, close to 300,000 refugees from Eritrea are hosted by Ethiopia and Sudan as of 31st October 2017.
In 2018, UNHCR will continue to focus on life-saving, protection and assistance activities, as well as durable solutions initiatives for people of concern. It will do this by strengthening administrative institutions, regional, legal and policy frameworks (where applicable), and practices relevant to refugee protection. Furthermore, UNHCR will promote the self-reliance and economic inclusion of refugees and asylum-seekers by focusing on livelihood opportunities and education initiatives, while targeting new arrivals and the most vulnerable with financial assistance programmes, including through cash based interventions. Additional priorities for 2018 include addressing the reintegration needs of Somalis returning from Kenya and Yemen, by enhancing reintegration projects that benefit both people of concern and host communities, as well as the emergency pre-famine response in Somalia.
The Comprehensive Refugee Response Framework (CRRF) will have considerable bearing in the subregion in 2018. As of November 2017, five of 12 countries rolling-out this framework are in this subregion, including the regional approach to the Somali Refugee Situation driven by the Inter-Governmental Authority on Development (IGAD). The Governments of CRRF roll-out countries, namely, Djibouti, Ethiopia, Kenya, Somalia and Uganda, will be key partners in 2018, putting the CRRF into practice and leading global efforts to address refugee matters comprehensively. The commitment of host countries to uphold the highest standards of protection for refugees and IDPs—including by working closely with the UN and other partners on capacity-building initiatives, technical assistance, and national policies—reflects their willingness to address the ongoing challenges associated with refugee movements on the continent, while seeking approaches that benefit refugees, host communities and local economies alike.
2018 Budget and Expenditure in East and Horn of Africa | USD
|Ethiopia UNHCR Representation to the AU and ECA||Budget|
|Kenya Regional Support Hub||Budget|
2018 Voluntary Contributions to East and Horn and Great Lakes | USD
|Earmarking / Donor||Pillar 1
|East and Horn and Great Lakes overall|
|Private donors in the Republic of Korea||0||0||0||0||14,427||14,427|
|East and Horn and Great Lakes overall subtotal||29,621||0||0||0||14,427||44,048|
|African Development Bank||589,667||0||0||0||0||589,667|
|Central Emergency Response Fund (CERF)||2,527,999||0||0||0||0||2,527,999|
|Great Lakes Region Cross Border Fund||169,359||0||0||0||0||169,359|
|Private donors in Thailand||31,846||0||0||0||0||31,846|
|Republic of Korea||0||0||0||0||200,000||200,000|
|UN Peacebuilding Fund||933,333||0||0||0||0||933,333|
|United States of America||323,930||0||0||0||10,900,000||11,223,930|
|Intergovernmental Authority on Development||60,965||0||0||0||0||60,965|
|United States of America||0||0||0||0||5,100,000||5,100,000|
|Central Emergency Response Fund (CERF)||407,719||0||0||0||0||407,719|
|United States of America||0||0||0||0||1,423,401||1,423,401|
|Central Emergency Response Fund (CERF)||0||0||0||7,500,076||0||7,500,076|
|Common Humanitarian Fund Sudan||0||0||0||1,196,700||0||1,196,700|
|Private donors in Australia||0||0||0||0||88,190||88,190|
|Private donors in Italy||0||0||0||0||6,895||6,895|
|Private donors in Qatar||1,302,907||0||0||0||0||1,302,907|
|Private donors in Spain||1,356,489||0||0||0||1,604||1,358,093|
|Private donors in the Netherlands||4,625,424||0||0||0||0||4,625,424|
|Private donors in the United States of America||0||0||0||225,000||175,000||400,000|
|Republic of Korea||600,000||0||0||0||0||600,000|
|United Arab Emirates||436,000||0||0||0||0||436,000|
|United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland||17,641,221||0||0||0||0||17,641,221|
|United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs||123,131||0||0||0||0||123,131|
|United States of America||806,333||0||0||0||79,300,000||80,106,333|
|Private donors in Canada||200,309||0||0||0||11,304||211,612|
|Private donors in Denmark||0||0||0||0||54,936||54,936|
|Private donors in Germany||1,573,243||0||0||0||795,455||2,368,697|
|Private donors in Japan||97,062||0||0||0||100,270||197,333|
|Private donors in Kenya||1,500||0||0||0||0||1,500|
|Private donors in Qatar||1,644,188||0||0||0||0||1,644,188|
|Private donors in the Netherlands||1,188,584||0||0||0||0||1,188,584|
|Private donors in the Republic of Korea||235,894||0||0||0||0||235,894|
|Private donors in the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland||168,950||0||0||0||0||168,950|
|Private donors in the United States of America||349,900||0||0||0||791,093||1,140,993|
|UN Peacebuilding Fund||166,667||0||0||0||0||166,667|
|United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland||3,031,903||0||0||0||0||3,031,903|
|United States of America||3,913,952||0||0||0||45,900,000||49,813,952|
|Kenya Regional Support Hub|
|United States of America||106,020||0||0||0||0||106,020|
|Kenya Regional Support Hub subtotal||146,020||0||0||0||0||146,020|
|Central Emergency Response Fund (CERF)||322,420||0||0||0||0||322,420|
|Private donors in Japan||100,270||0||0||0||0||100,270|
|Private donors in Qatar||812,970||0||0||0||0||812,970|
|Private donors in Switzerland||523,089||0||0||0||60,705||583,794|
|Private donors in the Netherlands||442,808||0||0||0||0||442,808|
|Private donors in the United States of America||299,411||0||0||0||0||299,411|
|United States of America||933,845||0||0||0||18,100,000||19,033,845|
|Central Emergency Response Fund (CERF)||970,705||0||0||0||0||970,705|
|Private donors in Italy||0||0||0||0||51||51|
|Private donors in Qatar||0||0||0||0||9,630,000||9,630,000|
|Republic of Korea||0||0||0||0||300,000||300,000|
|UN Peacebuilding Fund||59,333||0||203,167||0||0||262,500|
|United States of America||0||0||0||0||46,100,000||46,100,000|
|Intergovernmental Authority on Development||584,042||0||0||0||0||584,042|
|Private donors in Australia||18,962||0||0||0||0||18,962|
|Private donors in France||0||0||0||0||34,722||34,722|
|Private donors in Italy||0||0||0||0||86||86|
|Private donors in Japan||293,000||0||0||0||0||293,000|
|Private donors in Qatar||1,302,907||0||0||0||0||1,302,907|
|Republic of Korea||0||0||0||0||1,507,080||1,507,080|
|United States of America||0||0||0||0||38,400,000||38,400,000|
|South Sudan subtotal||8,790,339||0||0||836,148||40,917,157||50,543,644|
|Central Emergency Response Fund (CERF)||1,331,525||0||0||0||0||1,331,525|
|Intergovernmental Authority on Development||353,436||0||0||0||0||353,436|
|Private donors in Australia||465,950||0||0||0||0||465,950|
|Private donors in Italy||0||0||0||235||0||235|
|Private donors in Qatar||849,521||0||0||0||0||849,521|
|Private donors in Spain||0||0||0||0||1,604||1,604|
|Private donors in the Netherlands||480,027||0||0||0||0||480,027|
|Republic of Korea||0||0||0||0||300,000||300,000|
|United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland||2,376,609||0||0||0||0||2,376,609|
|United Nations Darfur Fund||0||0||250,000||87,050||0||337,050|
|United States of America||129,082||0||0||0||57,400,000||57,529,082|
|Central Emergency Response Fund (CERF)||8,110,721||0||0||0||0||8,110,721|
|Education Cannot Wait||265,279||0||0||0||0||265,279|
|End Violence Against Children Fund||0||0||0||0||77,818||77,818|
|Intergovernmental Authority on Development||534,133||0||0||0||0||534,133|
|Private donors in Canada||0||0||0||0||28,739||28,739|
|Private donors in France||0||0||0||0||68||68|
|Private donors in Germany||0||0||0||0||166,127||166,127|
|Private donors in Italy||0||0||0||0||4,921||4,921|
|Private donors in Japan||305,498||0||0||0||0||305,498|
|Private donors in Qatar||1,061,894||0||0||0||0||1,061,894|
|Private donors in Spain||638,825||0||0||0||0||638,825|
|Private donors in Sweden||400,216||0||0||0||0||400,216|
|Private donors in Switzerland||0||0||0||0||4,257||4,257|
|Private donors in the Republic of Korea||0||0||0||0||12,756||12,756|
|Private donors in the United Arab Emirates||1,000,000||0||0||0||0||1,000,000|
|Private donors in the United States of America||2,321,308||0||0||0||425,544||2,746,852|
|Republic of Korea||2,535,667||0||0||0||0||2,535,667|
|United Arab Emirates||2,575,643||0||0||0||0||2,575,643|
|United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland||7,702,628||0||0||0||0||7,702,628|
|United States of America||5,334,730||0||0||0||24,000,000||29,334,730|
|United Republic of Tanzania|
|Central Emergency Response Fund (CERF)||4,146,664||0||0||0||0||4,146,664|
|Great Lakes Region Cross Border Fund||424,908||0||0||0||0||424,908|
|Private donors in Japan||3,939,980||0||0||0||0||3,939,980|
|Private donors in Sweden||0||0||0||0||533,804||533,804|
|Private donors in the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland||65,595||0||0||0||0||65,595|
|Private donors in the United States of America||1,113,865||0||0||0||25,020||1,138,885|
|United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland||9,110,336||0||1,101,928||0||0||10,212,264|
|United States of America||888,847||0||0||0||7,200,000||8,088,847|
|United Republic of Tanzania subtotal||24,441,463||0||1,101,928||0||9,527,952||35,071,343|