East and Horn of Africa

Operational information on the East and Horn of Africa subregion is presented below. A summary of this can also be downloaded in PDF format. This subregion covers the following countries:
 

Subregion: East and Horn of Africa

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Budgets and Expenditure in Subregion East and Horn of Africa

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2018 {"categories":[2013,2014,2015,2016,2017,2018],"budget":[1202.02253764,1734.609283047,1708.406562848,1679.992100185,1816.990419175,1727.8407836],"expenditure":[589.89483416,710.78058807,660.50961482,729.94847813,867.98788449,790.706912]} {"categories":[2013,2014,2015,2016,2017,2018],"p1":[1033.38064529,1407.771179317,1385.750670941,1464.041378785,1673.407104514,1521.82220032],"p2":[14.41734205,12.5678804,11.59981011,7.86352259,6.081350491,7.2239704],"p3":[22.00934282,15.0069559,17.03133044,34.86243341,29.80667717,70.29629457],"p4":[132.21520748,299.26326743,294.024751357,173.2247654,107.695287,128.49831831]} {"categories":[2013,2014,2015,2016,2017,2018],"p1":[530.11995501,613.32661372,583.76008895,657.79668174,799.64683913,707.88365611],"p2":[5.8588838,5.74570988,3.48248591,4.2784707,2.66588453,2.71683193],"p3":[4.86436034,3.1304473,7.72906631,8.31500207,17.82340434,23.79566207],"p4":[49.05163501,88.57781717,65.53797365,59.55832362,47.85175649,56.31076189]}
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People of Concern - 2018

[["Refugees",4348754],["Asylum-seekers",128377],["IDPs",9171461],["Returned refugees",232169],["Stateless",18500],["Others of concern",231310]]
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Response in 2018

In 2018, East and Horn of Africa remained one of the most unstable and complex sub-regions in the continent with instability, protracted political strife arising from local and national grievances and inter-communal conflicts coupled with human rights violations in some parts.
 
The sub-region is host to South Sudan and Somalia situations - the two of the largest refugee crises in the world. In addition to displacement resulting from these two situations, the sub-region is hosting large numbers of refugees and asylum-seekers from the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) and Sudan. At year-end, the number of refugees and asylum-seekers in the sub-region exceeded 4.02 million, with the largest caseloads in Uganda (1.2 million), Sudan (1.1 million), and Ethiopia (905,000).
 
The number of IDPs in the sub-region exceeded 9 million by the end of the year, including more than 2.6 million IDPs in both Ethiopia and Somalia, and close to 1.9 million in both South Sudan and Sudan. While 80% of IDPs were displaced due to conflict, drought further exacerbated this displacement.  In Ethiopia, for example, it is estimated that approximately 20% of IDPs were displaced for climate-related reasons, and in Somalia, 1.4 million of the approximately 2.6 million IDPs were displaced by the 2016-2017 drought. The majority of IDPs remain in need of emergency humanitarian assistance, and some 1.3 million IDPs are in particular need of improved shelter and NFI support. In addition to prioritizing the provision of core relief items, protection and return monitoring, UNHCR also engaged in area-based reintegration programming in partnership with the Government of Somalia and other stakeholders.
 
Progress was made in the sub-region in terms of legislative reform, with the most notable achievement taking place in December 2018, when South Sudan acceded to the 1951 Convention relating to the Status of Refugees. UNHCR also welcomed progress on Ethiopia’s historic refugee proclamation, which will enable refugees to acquire work permits; access primary education; obtain drivers’ licenses; register life events such as births and marriages; and open bank accounts.  
 
Efforts to achieve durable solutions on behalf of refugees were sustained throughout the sub-region, with some 5,298 refugees resettled from Kenya and Uganda, while another 1,759 were assisted for voluntary repatriation to Sudan. In Eritrea, despite stepping up UNHCR’s presence and coverage, the relationship with the Government remained challenging, thereby frustrating all efforts to implement the two-prong strategy notably aiming at assisting the voluntary repatriation and resettlement to third countries of more than 1,000 Somali refugees, while actively engaging with relevant stakeholders with a view of contributing to solving the root causes of forced displacement, inter alia.
 
The Global Compact for Refugees emphasizes the importance of economic inclusion in achieving protection and solutions for refugees and especially, those living in protracted situations. To achieve the economic inclusion requires active engagement with a broad range of actors, leveraging their respective comparative advantages and specializations, therefore, UNHCR worked with a large range of development actors in Ethiopia.  The operation engaged these diverse actors to further advocacy efforts with the Government of Ethiopia, contributing to the passing of the new proclamation.
 
The security situation in most areas of South Sudan improved as a result of the Revitalized Agreement on the Resolution of the Conflict in the Republic of South Sudan (R-ARCSS), signed on 12 September 2018. By the end of 2018 there was a decline in military engagements which allowed humanitarian operations to be implemented with minimal interruptions across the country, except for a few areas in Central and Western Equatoria and led to the increase in the number of spontaneous refugee returns to about 136,000.
 
By the end of 2018, violence and instability in Somalia resulted in more internal displacement. The number of IDPs increased to more than 2.6 million IDPs, with over 800,000 Somalis seeking refuge in neighbouring countries and Yemen. The protection and operational environment in Somalia remained complex and unpredictable due to continuing insecurity in many parts, as well as related food insecurity.
 
At year-end, Kenya was hosting some 471,700 refugees and asylum-seekers. The formal declaration of Kenya as a CRRF country in late 2017 and the roll out of the MYMP in 2018 enhanced the delivery of protection and solution strategy in Kenya. This was supported by the World Bank led eligibility process for Kenya to access the IDA18 refugee sub-window in February 2018.
 
Throughout 2018, Uganda continued to receive refugees mainly from the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC), South Sudan and Burundi, maintaining an open-door policy for forcibly displaced people, granting prima facie refugee status to asylum-seeking persons from the DRC and South Sudan. A joint verification exercise took place, registering the entire refugee population using the biometric identity management system (BIMS) and proGres v4, UNHCR’s registration system.  At year end, the refugee and asylum-seeking population in Uganda stood at close to 1.2 million.
 
Due to limited resources, continuous deterioration of security and increasing logistical challenges, substantial gaps in UNHCR’s ability to meeting the protection and assistance needs of people of concern in the sub-region remain.
 

Operational environment

 
East and Horn of Africa continues to be characterised by displacement driven by the recent and protracted conflicts, and drought, which has led to increasing food insecurity and the threat of famine in Somalia and South Sudan. In 2017, the subregion hosts some 3.2 million refugees, mainly from the Democratic Republic of the Congo, Somalia and South Sudan, and nearly 5.76 million internally displaced people (IDPs) in Somalia, South Sudan and Sudan at the end of October 2017 according to OCHA. The war in Yemen continues to affect the subregion, with more than 95,000 refugees, third-country nationals and others fleeing to Djibouti, Ethiopia, Somalia and the Sudan since the war began in 2015.
 
Somalia remains one of the most protracted displacement situations globally, with nearly 850,000 refugees in Djibouti, Ethiopia, Kenya, Uganda and Yemen, in addition to some 1.56 million IDPs. Political instability and insecurity, particularly in southern and central Somalia, as well as an unstable economy, limited livelihood opportunities, environmental degradation and severe droughts, contribute to this protracted crisis.
 
The South Sudan situation continues to be the largest and most complex emergency in Africa, with 2 million refugees in the sub-region, in addition to the 2 million South Sudanese who are internally displaced. The political and security situation inside the country remains volatile, with armed conflict persisting, killings, abductions, rape, and a general state of lawlessness. Severe food insecurity further exacerbates the situation, leading to massive internal displacement as well as movements across borders, with many refugee children facing alarming levels of malnutrition. The toll on neighbouring countries is high. Uganda hosts the largest number of South Sudanese refugees, with more slightly than 1 million, followed by Sudan, Ethiopia, Kenya, the Democratic Republic of the Congo and the Central African Republic. In 2018, UNHCR will continue to focus on life-saving and life-sustaining assistance for South Sudanese refugees, including the provision of basic services and meeting the immediate needs of new arrivals from South Sudan in neighbouring countries.
 
The number of refugees from Sudan currently stands at 650,000, hosted mainly by Chad and South Sudan, and there are some 2.3 million IDPs in need of humanitarian assistance. Similarly, close to 300,000 refugees from Eritrea are hosted by Ethiopia and Sudan as of 31st October 2017. 
 
In 2018, UNHCR will continue to focus on life-saving, protection and assistance activities, as well as durable solutions initiatives for people of concern. It will do this by strengthening administrative institutions, regional, legal and policy frameworks (where applicable), and practices relevant to refugee protection. Furthermore, UNHCR will promote the self-reliance and economic inclusion of refugees and asylum-seekers by focusing on livelihood opportunities and education initiatives, while targeting new arrivals and the most vulnerable with financial assistance programmes, including through cash based interventions. Additional priorities for 2018 include addressing the reintegration needs of Somalis returning from Kenya and Yemen, by enhancing reintegration projects that benefit both people of concern and host communities, as well as the emergency pre-famine response in Somalia.
 
The Comprehensive Refugee Response Framework (CRRF) will have considerable bearing in the subregion in 2018. As of November 2017, five of 12 countries rolling-out this framework are in this subregion, including the regional approach to the Somali Refugee Situation driven by the Inter-Governmental Authority on Development (IGAD). The Governments of CRRF roll-out countries, namely, Djibouti, Ethiopia, Kenya, Somalia and Uganda, will be key partners in 2018, putting the CRRF into practice and leading global efforts to address refugee matters comprehensively. The commitment of host countries to uphold the highest standards of protection for refugees and IDPs—including by working closely with the UN and other partners on capacity-building initiatives, technical assistance, and national policies—reflects their willingness to address the ongoing challenges associated with refugee movements on the continent, while seeking approaches that benefit refugees, host communities and local economies alike.

2018 Budget and Expenditure in East and Horn of Africa | USD

Operation Pillar 1
Refugee programme
Pillar 2
Stateless programme
Pillar 3
Reintegration projects
Pillar 4
IDP projects
Total
Chad Budget
Expenditure
140,346,387
73,034,034
3,003,699
531,928
0
0
5,634,658
1,668,405
148,984,744
75,234,367
Djibouti Budget
Expenditure
26,730,931
9,508,942
0
0
0
0
0
0
26,730,931
9,508,942
Eritrea Budget
Expenditure
5,223,224
3,886,322
0
0
0
0
0
0
5,223,224
3,886,322
Ethiopia Budget
Expenditure
311,125,814
146,278,769
0
0
0
0
16,628,862
10,477,913
327,754,676
156,756,682
Ethiopia UNHCR Representation to the AU and ECA Budget
Expenditure
4,162,503
1,846,967
0
0
0
0
0
0
4,162,503
1,846,967
Kenya Budget
Expenditure
190,631,876
102,171,288
481,496
385,235
0
0
0
0
191,113,372
102,556,523
Kenya Regional Support Hub Budget
Expenditure
7,973,251
7,255,496
0
0
0
0
0
0
7,973,251
7,255,496
Somalia Budget
Expenditure
79,066,491
33,682,361
0
0
58,449,546
20,235,222
48,868,238
10,928,415
186,384,275
64,845,998
South Sudan Budget
Expenditure
120,077,582
85,125,929
1,505,682
1,006,895
0
0
33,704,059
25,037,966
155,287,323
111,170,790
Sudan Budget
Expenditure
218,356,455
60,249,503
2,033,093
743,129
11,846,749
3,560,440
23,662,502
8,198,063
255,898,799
72,751,134
Uganda Budget
Expenditure
415,003,072
184,547,919
200,000
49,645
0
0
0
0
415,203,072
184,597,564
Regional activities Budget
Expenditure
3,124,616
296,127
0
0
0
0
0
0
3,124,616
296,127
Total Budget
Expenditure
1,521,822,200
707,883,656
7,223,970
2,716,832
70,296,295
23,795,662
128,498,318
56,310,762
1,727,840,784
790,706,912

2018 Voluntary Contributions to East and Horn of Africa | USD

Earmarking / Donor Pillar 1
Refugee programme
Pillar 2
Stateless programme
Pillar 3
Reintegration projects
Pillar 4
IDP projects
All
pillars
Total
East and Horn of Africa overall
Malta 29,6210000 29,621
Private donors in the Republic of Korea 000014,427 14,427
East and Horn of Africa overall subtotal 29,62100014,427 44,048
Chad
Belgium 1,179,2450000 1,179,245
Canada 00001,806,756 1,806,756
Central Emergency Response Fund (CERF) 2,404,3240000 2,404,324
Denmark 2,048,4000000 2,048,400
European Union 4,834,6720000 4,834,672
France 1,361,4400000 1,361,440
Germany 1,119,8210001,000,000 2,119,821
Private donors in Germany 0000795,455 795,455
Private donors in Italy 0000455 455
Private donors in Qatar 1,302,9070000 1,302,907
Private donors in Spain 56,2220000 56,222
Private donors in the United States of America 774,3050000 774,305
Republic of Korea 0000300,000 300,000
Spain 536,3820000 536,382
Switzerland 136,0440001,524,390 1,660,434
UNAIDS 000060,000 60,000
UNDP 223,9050000 223,905
United States of America 33,10200028,300,000 28,333,102
Chad subtotal 16,010,76800033,787,056 49,797,824
Djibouti
Canada 0000196,386 196,386
Intergovernmental Authority on Development 60,9650000 60,965
United States of America 00005,100,000 5,100,000
Djibouti subtotal 60,9650005,296,386 5,357,352
Eritrea
Central Emergency Response Fund (CERF) 407,7190000 407,719
United States of America 00001,423,401 1,423,401
Eritrea subtotal 407,7190001,423,401 1,831,120
Ethiopia
Canada 0000864,101 864,101
Central Emergency Response Fund (CERF) 0007,500,0760 7,500,076
Common Humanitarian Fund Sudan 0001,196,7000 1,196,700
Czech Republic 000454,5450 454,545
Denmark 4,749,9110000 4,749,911
European Union 2,824,122002,331,0020 5,155,124
Germany 1,788,1160000 1,788,116
Ireland 568,8280001,179,245 1,748,073
Italy 146,1990000 146,199
Japan 2,000,0000000 2,000,000
Luxembourg 0000366,109 366,109
Netherlands 6,930,1810000 6,930,181
Private donors in Australia 000088,190 88,190
Private donors in Italy 00006,895 6,895
Private donors in Qatar 1,302,9070000 1,302,907
Private donors in Spain 1,356,4890001,604 1,358,093
Private donors in the Netherlands 4,625,4240000 4,625,424
Private donors in the United States of America 000225,000175,000 400,000
Republic of Korea 600,0000000 600,000
Spain 284,4140000 284,414
Sweden 00001,269,036 1,269,036
Switzerland 502,0080000 502,008
UNAIDS 000072,000 72,000
UNICEF 1,825,7920000 1,825,792
United Arab Emirates 436,0000000 436,000
United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland 17,641,2210000 17,641,221
United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs 123,1310000 123,131
United States of America 806,33300079,300,000 80,106,333
Ethiopia subtotal 48,511,0750011,707,32383,322,179 143,540,578
Kenya
Canada 00001,571,092 1,571,092
Denmark 00001,592,357 1,592,357
European Union 8,004,9390000 8,004,939
France 200,0000000 200,000
Japan 3,000,0000000 3,000,000
Netherlands 226,7500000 226,750
Private donors in Canada 200,30900011,304 211,612
Private donors in Denmark 000054,936 54,936
Private donors in Germany 1,573,243000795,455 2,368,697
Private donors in Japan 97,062000100,270 197,333
Private donors in Kenya 1,5000000 1,500
Private donors in Qatar 1,644,1880000 1,644,188
Private donors in the Netherlands 1,188,5840000 1,188,584
Private donors in the Republic of Korea 235,8940000 235,894
Private donors in the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland 168,9500000 168,950
Private donors in the United States of America 349,900000791,093 1,140,993
Sweden 904,94600073,065 978,011
Switzerland 00001,524,390 1,524,390
UN Peacebuilding Fund 166,6670000 166,667
UNAIDS 000051,350 51,350
United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland 3,031,9030000 3,031,903
United States of America 3,913,95200045,900,000 49,813,952
Kenya subtotal 24,908,78600052,465,312 77,374,097
Kenya Regional Support Hub
Germany 40,0000000 40,000
United States of America 106,0200000 106,020
Kenya Regional Support Hub subtotal 146,0200000 146,020
Somalia
Central Emergency Response Fund (CERF) 970,7050000 970,705
European Union 1,774,93703,514,15100 5,289,088
France 1,161,4400000 1,161,440
Germany 1,169,5910000 1,169,591
Italy 0000884,525 884,525
Japan 00002,000,000 2,000,000
Private donors in Italy 000051 51
Private donors in Qatar 00009,630,000 9,630,000
Republic of Korea 0000300,000 300,000
Sweden 0000634,518 634,518
UN Peacebuilding Fund 59,3330203,16700 262,500
UN-Habitat 1,119,6870000 1,119,687
United States of America 000046,100,000 46,100,000
Somalia subtotal 6,255,69303,717,318059,549,093 69,522,103
South Sudan
Canada 0000589,159 589,159
European Union 3,091,42800836,1480 3,927,575
Holy See 00005,000 5,000
Intergovernmental Authority on Development 584,0420000 584,042
Japan 3,500,0000000 3,500,000
Luxembourg 0000366,109 366,109
Private donors in Australia 18,9620000 18,962
Private donors in France 000034,722 34,722
Private donors in Italy 000086 86
Private donors in Japan 293,0000000 293,000
Private donors in Qatar 1,302,9070000 1,302,907
Republic of Korea 00001,507,080 1,507,080
UNAIDS 000015,000 15,000
United States of America 000038,400,000 38,400,000
South Sudan subtotal 8,790,33900836,14840,917,157 50,543,644
Sudan
Canada 00002,120,974 2,120,974
Central Emergency Response Fund (CERF) 1,331,5250000 1,331,525
Denmark 3,049,2450000 3,049,245
European Union 2,938,3430000 2,938,343
Germany 3,741,4950000 3,741,495
Intergovernmental Authority on Development 353,4360000 353,436
Italy 1,658,7680000 1,658,768
Japan 2,000,0000000 2,000,000
Luxembourg 0000156,904 156,904
Netherlands 2,640,688160,370000 2,801,058
Private donors in Australia 465,9500000 465,950
Private donors in Italy 0002350 235
Private donors in Qatar 849,5210000 849,521
Private donors in Spain 00001,604 1,604
Private donors in the Netherlands 480,0270000 480,027
Republic of Korea 0000300,000 300,000
Sweden 0000634,518 634,518
Switzerland 88,0790001,270,325 1,358,404
United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland 2,376,6090000 2,376,609
United Nations Darfur Fund 00250,00087,0500 337,050
United States of America 129,08200057,400,000 57,529,082
WFP 108,0570000 108,057
Sudan subtotal 22,210,827160,370250,00087,28561,884,325 84,592,807
Uganda
Belgium 549,0940000 549,094
Canada 00001,577,171 1,577,171
Central Emergency Response Fund (CERF) 8,110,7210000 8,110,721
Denmark 4,777,0700000 4,777,070
Education Cannot Wait 265,2790000 265,279
End Violence Against Children Fund 000077,818 77,818
European Union 00007,870,370 7,870,370
France 500,0000000 500,000
Germany 11,347,4000000 11,347,400
Intergovernmental Authority on Development 534,1330000 534,133
Ireland 1,157,4070000 1,157,407
Japan 3,000,0000000 3,000,000
Norway 321,0000004,683,292 5,004,292
Private donors in Canada 000028,739 28,739
Private donors in France 000068 68
Private donors in Germany 0000166,127 166,127
Private donors in Italy 00004,921 4,921
Private donors in Japan 305,4980000 305,498
Private donors in Qatar 1,061,8940000 1,061,894
Private donors in Spain 638,8250000 638,825
Private donors in Sweden 400,2160000 400,216
Private donors in Switzerland 00004,257 4,257
Private donors in the Republic of Korea 000012,756 12,756
Private donors in the United Arab Emirates 1,000,0000000 1,000,000
Private donors in the United States of America 2,321,308000425,544 2,746,852
Republic of Korea 2,535,6670000 2,535,667
Sweden 565,7030000 565,703
Switzerland 00001,270,325 1,270,325
UNAIDS 0000100,000 100,000
United Arab Emirates 2,575,6430000 2,575,643
United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland 7,702,6280000 7,702,628
United States of America 5,334,73000024,000,000 29,334,730
Uganda subtotal 55,004,21600040,221,389 95,225,605
Total 182,336,028160,3703,967,31812,630,756378,880,724 577,975,197
Note:
Latest contributions
  • 14-AUG-2019
    United States of America

    private donors

    $170,689
  • Ireland
    $2,229,654
  • 13-AUG-2019
    Czech Republic
    $1,085,541
  • 09-AUG-2019
    Czech Republic
    $325,662
  • Germany
    $150,523
  • 07-AUG-2019
    Japan
    $71,066
  • Germany
    $288,512
  • 05-AUG-2019
    Ireland
    $222,965
  • 02-AUG-2019
    United States of America

    private donors

    $1,115,700
  • 31-JUL-2019
    European Union
    $3,284,093
  • Switzerland
    $98,259,978
  • Malaysia

    private donors

    $141,411
  • Mexico

    private donors

    $61,871
  • Kuwait
    $5,000,000
  • Netherlands

    private donors

    $167,877
  • China

    private donors

    $906,944
  • Sweden

    private donors

    $1,010,198
  • Brazil

    private donors

    $109,306
  • United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland

    private donors

    $142,639
  • United Arab Emirates

    private donors

    $144,458