North Africa

Operational information on the North Africa subregion is presented below. A summary of this can also be downloaded in PDF format. This subregion covers the following countries and territories:
 

| Algeria | Egypt | Libya | Mauritania | Morocco | Tunisia | Western Sahara

Subregion: North Africa

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Budgets and Expenditure in Subregion North Africa

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2018 {"categories":[2013,2014,2015,2016,2017,2018],"budget":[167.92820629,177.198864558,181.220773542,173.67452757,229.340676434,238.25856056],"expenditure":[96.75212898,99.32585745,92.25388047,97.53519033,126.88229088,127.67430111]} {"categories":[2013,2014,2015,2016,2017,2018],"p1":[162.87279954,174.738902408,178.952727542,168.62986455,215.195408434,227.59999556],"p2":[2.26498858,0.40996215,0.05,null,null,null],"p3":[null,null,null,null,null,null],"p4":[2.79041817,2.05,2.218046,5.04466302,14.145268,10.658565]} {"categories":[2013,2014,2015,2016,2017,2018],"p1":[96.03934219,98.85414181,90.38762086,95.21022718,115.9172437,117.66395005],"p2":[0.39925112,0.08869164,0.03162106,null,null,null],"p3":[null,null,null,null,null,null],"p4":[0.31353567,0.383024,1.83463855,2.32496315,10.96504718,10.01035106]}
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People of Concern - 2018

[["Refugees",414090],["Refugee-like situation",26000],["Asylum-seekers",127746],["IDPs",170490],["Returned IDPs",43681],["Stateless",4],["Others of concern",8]]
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Response in 2018

The number of refugees, asylum-seekers, IDPs, IDP returnees, migrants, and stateless persons continued to increase in the North Africa sub-region in 2018. The refugee and asylum-seeker population increased from 445,430 at the end of 2017 to nearly 800,000 by end of 2018. Although the overall number of sea crossings fell significantly, the rate of sea rescues and interceptions rose considerably, with widespread detention and reported abuse of people of concern continuing. 

Access to people of concern in the region was negatively impacted by the volatile situation in Libya. Despite fewer recorded clashes in Tripoli, the rise in targeted killings and terrorist activities contributed to a volatile security situation impacting the safety of people in need of international protection. UNHCR’s presence in Libya remained restricted throughout the year and the operational capacity was further diminished towards the end of 2018 due to security concerns. The socio-economic situation also remained challenging, with a deteriorating economy and bleak employment prospects leading to difficult circumstances for both refugees and host communities alike.
 
UNHCR’s operations across the sub-region continued to work towards expanding the protection space in accordance with the High Commissioner’s 2017-2021 Strategic Directions. UNHCR’s main focus remained on advocacy for national asylum systems, particularly in Algeria, Mauritania, Morocco and Tunisia. Progress was made in increasing community-based protection and the availability of multi-purpose cash for urban refugees. Access to national services also improved, particularly for health and education in urban areas. In Egypt, UNHCR successfully advocated for the mainstreaming of all refugees and asylum-seekers into the public health system. UNHCR focused on finding durable solutions for people of concern in the sub-region, including through evacuations from Libya to Italy and to the ETM in Niger.
 
Most unmet needs for North Africa in 2018 were recorded in Libya, where access to territory remained limited. This impeded not only UNHCR’s ability to assist vulnerable people, but also the presence of staff in the country. In Egypt, although the protection environment remained conducive, access to asylum continued to be restrictive, with UNHCR having limited access to the prominent entry points and detention facilities. Similarly, access to people of concern in detention remained challenging, with the majority of UNHCR’s requests not being granted. In Algeria and Mauritania, UNHCR was unable to meet the basic assistance needs in camps. Food, shelter and water provision continued to be inadequate in Tindouf, while the distribution of non-food items did not meet the needs of the growing camp population in Mbera.
 

Operational Environment

 North Africa has been a hotspot when it comes to mixed flows with the increasing trend where traditional transit countries in the subregion are now becoming destination countries. While most North African countries are signatories to the 1951 Geneva Convention, the subregion has complex and often restricted asylum systems.
 
The lack of funding has a direct impact on protracted refugee situations, in particular for the 50,000 Malian refugees in Mbera camp, Mauritania, and 90,000 vulnerable Sahrawi refugees in Tindouf camps, Algeria. In both situations, resources and opportunities for durable solutions including self-reliance are extremely limited.
 
In addition, UNHCR continues to provide protection and assistance to an increasing number of urban refugees and asylum-seekers, most of whom are from Syria, within a complex mixed movement context, notably with regards to protection at sea. Refugees and asylum-seekers in urban areas are affected by the difficult economic situation and lack of access to employment opportunities, leaving the most vulnerable almost fully dependent on assistance.
 
The ongoing conflict in Libya is expected to continue generating internal displacement and fertile ground for transnational smuggling and trafficking networks. UNHCR will continue to scale up its engagement in Libya, to provide life-saving protection and assistance to refugees and asylum-seekers and to support Libyan civilians affected by the conflict. 
 
In line with UNHCR’s comprehensive strategy along the Central Mediterranean route, the strategy in North Africa focuses on expanding protection space throughout the subregion by advancing national asylum systems and protection safeguards and providing protection and assistance to refugees and asylum-seekers. UNHCR’s main objectives in North Africa include: preventing refoulement and improving access to territory and asylum; working towards solutions where possible including empowering refugees; advocating for development assistance for refugees and hosting communities; and ensuring that refugees and asylum-seekers are informed and have access to their rights and access to basic life sustaining assistance.

Response and Implementation

The main objective of UNHCR’s confidence building measures programme is to link the population of the Tindouf camps and the Western Sahara territory. Over 12,000 were still to benefit from the programme when activities were suspended in 2014. UNHCR will continue maintaining minimum operational capacities in Western Sahara and in Tindouf, Algeria to restart activities as soon as parties agree on resumption. 
 

2018 Budget and Expenditure in North Africa | USD

Operation Pillar 1
Refugee programme
Pillar 2
Stateless programme
Pillar 3
Reintegration projects
Pillar 4
IDP projects
Total
Algeria Budget
Expenditure
36,363,088
14,167,520
0
0
0
0
0
0
36,363,088
14,167,520
Egypt Regional Office Budget
Expenditure
74,468,653
42,821,421
0
0
0
0
0
0
74,468,653
42,821,421
Libya Budget
Expenditure
74,341,433
34,227,951
0
0
0
0
10,658,565
10,010,351
84,999,998
44,238,302
Mauritania Budget
Expenditure
20,264,194
13,860,248
0
0
0
0
0
0
20,264,194
13,860,248
Morocco Budget
Expenditure
7,989,546
6,164,710
0
0
0
0
0
0
7,989,546
6,164,710
Tunisia Budget
Expenditure
5,694,843
4,032,898
0
0
0
0
0
0
5,694,843
4,032,898
Western Sahara (Confidence Building Measures) Budget
Expenditure
8,478,237
2,389,203
0
0
0
0
0
0
8,478,237
2,389,203
Total Budget
Expenditure
227,599,996
117,663,950
0
0
0
0
10,658,565
10,010,351
238,258,561
127,674,301

2018 Voluntary Contributions to North Africa | USD

Earmarking / Donor Pillar 1
Refugee programme
Pillar 4
IDP projects
All
pillars
Total
North Africa overall
Malta 46,78400 46,784
United States of America 004,800,000 4,800,000
North Africa overall subtotal 46,78404,800,000 4,846,784
Algeria
Canada 00314,218 314,218
European Union 186,75700 186,757
France 270,00000 270,000
Germany 1,136,36400 1,136,364
Italy 320,79200 320,792
Norway 598,94600 598,946
Spain 571,42900 571,429
Sweden 634,51800 634,518
United States of America 006,950,000 6,950,000
Algeria subtotal 3,718,80507,264,218 10,983,023
Egypt Regional Office
Austria 1,137,65600 1,137,656
Canada 754,71700 754,717
European Union 2,891,10800 2,891,108
Germany 11,647,72700 11,647,727
Italy 3,662,77300 3,662,773
Japan 400,00000 400,000
Netherlands 1,324,73000 1,324,730
Private donors in Spain 6670937 1,604
UNICEF 224,00000 224,000
United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland 257,06400 257,064
United States of America 10,054,67704,100,000 14,154,677
Egypt Regional Office subtotal 32,355,11904,100,937 36,456,056
Libya
Austria 001,165,501 1,165,501
Canada 00589,159 589,159
Czech Republic 00226,552 226,552
Denmark 2,000,00000 2,000,000
European Union 7,314,44505,293,717 12,608,162
France 00125,000 125,000
Germany 005,859,157 5,859,157
Italy 5,482,2053,266,5510 8,748,756
Japan 100,637199,3630 300,000
Netherlands 02,000,0000 2,000,000
Norway 234,50600 234,506
Private donors in Italy 00116 116
Private donors in Spain 001,429 1,429
Sweden 00634,518 634,518
United States of America 30,00006,000,000 6,030,000
Libya subtotal 15,161,7935,465,91419,895,149 40,522,856
Mauritania
Canada 00392,773 392,773
European Union 874,72700 874,727
France 374,21600 374,216
Italy 9,02200 9,022
Private donors in Japan 425,06300 425,063
United States of America 001,100,000 1,100,000
Mauritania subtotal 1,683,02801,492,773 3,175,801
Morocco
European Union 409,12700 409,127
Italy 560,64200 560,642
Japan 220,00000 220,000
Monaco 160,08500 160,085
Switzerland 508,13000 508,130
Morocco subtotal 1,857,98400 1,857,984
Tunisia
European Union 301,86200 301,862
Italy 591,82500 591,825
Luxembourg 568,82800 568,828
Monaco 85,37900 85,379
Tunisia subtotal 1,547,89400 1,547,894
Western Sahara (Confidence Building Measures)
Morocco 0025,598 25,598
Western Sahara (Confidence Building Measures) subtotal 0025,598 25,598
Total 56,371,4065,465,91437,578,676 99,415,996
Note:
Latest contributions
  • 19-SEP-2019
    Poland
    $504,032
  • 18-SEP-2019
    Switzerland
    $503,018
  • 16-SEP-2019
    Italy
    $115,529
  • 13-SEP-2019
    European Union
    $769,231
  • Switzerland

    private donors

    $1,937,628
  • 12-SEP-2019
    Germany
    $1,106,194
  • Japan
    $2,443,838
  • United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland
    $4,435,150
  • 11-SEP-2019
    Republic of Korea
    $1,500,000
  • 10-SEP-2019
    United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland
    $18,292,683
  • 06-SEP-2019
    Germany
    $8,296,460
  • 04-SEP-2019
    United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland
    $39,390,244
  • Canada
    $56,063,910
  • 02-SEP-2019
    European Union
    $7,522,124
  • 31-AUG-2019
    Netherlands

    private donors

    $139,397
  • Sweden

    private donors

    $958,477
  • Mexico

    private donors

    $86,887
  • Canada

    private donors

    $229,864
  • Spain

    private donors

    $6,924,178
  • United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland

    private donors

    $91,498