Glossary

A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z
  • Cartagena Declaration on Refugees

    A Declaration adopted by a colloquium of experts from the Americas in November 1984. The Declaration enlarges the 1951 Convention definition of refugee to include “persons who have fled their country because their lives, safety or freedom have been threatened by generalized violence, foreign aggression, internal conflicts, massive violation of human rights or other circumstances which have seriously disturbed public order.”  While the Declaration is not a treaty, its provisions are respected across Central America. This refugee definition has been incorporated in the legislation of most of the countries of the Americas.

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  • Cessation clauses

    Legal provisions that set out the conditions under which refugee status comes to an end because it is no longer needed or justified. Cessation clauses are found in Article 1 (C) of the 1951 Convention and in Article I (4) of the 1969 OAU Refugee Convention. 

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  • Cluster leadership approach

    Part of the overall UN-led humanitarian reform process initiated in 2005 aimed at improving the effectiveness of humanitarian response through improving the predictability and accountability of humanitarian actions. It was adopted by the Inter-Agency Standing Committee as a mechanism that would address identified gaps in response and enhance the quality of humanitarian actions by strengthening partnerships between UN agencies, the Red Cross movement, international organizations and NGOs. UNHCR is the designated cluster lead for emergency shelter, camp coordination and camp management, and protection in situations of conflict-related internal displacement.

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  • Community-based approach

    An inclusive partnership strategy that recognizes and builds on the capacities and resources of people of concern, by promoting participation in programme activities. 

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  • Complementary pathways for admission to protection and solutions for refugees

    Safe and regulated avenues by which refugees may be admitted and stay in a country, and have their international protection needs met while they are also able to support themselves to potentially reach a sustainable and lasting solution. Complementary pathways are not meant to substitute the protection afforded to refugees under the international protection regime – they complement it and serve as an important expression of global solidarity, international cooperation and more equitable responsibility sharing. These pathways may include family reunification, scholarship and education programmes, as well as labour regional mobility schemes.

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  • Comprehensive solutions strategies

    Strategies whereby UNHCR engages with concerned parties (including authorities in countries of asylum, origin and affected refugees themselves) with the aim of enhancing solutions opportunities by applying a combination of durable solutions. These strategies have included support for voluntary repatriation; the strategic use of resttlement; increased opportunities for local integration; support to refugee-hosting communities by UNHCR, development partners and bilateral donors; as well as maximized opportunities for greater mobility as a pathway to solutions.

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  • Comprehensive target (RBM term)

    The comprehensive target indicates the level of achievement that UNHCR plans to reach within the period of implementation if the funding requirements (comprehensive needs) set out in the operations plan are fulfilled (see also implementation target).

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  • Convention on the Reduction of Statelessness (1961 Convention)

    A treaty that provides for the acquisition of nationality by those who would otherwise be stateless and who have an appropriate link with the State, through birth on the territory or through descent from a national. The Convention also provides for the retention of nationality by those who would become stateless if they were to lose their nationality to that State. UNHCR has been mandated with specific functions under Article 11 of this Convention. 

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  • Convention refugees

    Persons recognized as refugees by States, under the eligibility criteria in Article 1 of the 1951 Convention, and who are entitled to the enjoyment of a variety of rights under that treaty.

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  • Convention relating to the Status of Refugees (1951 Convention)

    This treaty establishes the most widely applicable framework for the protection of refugees. The Convention was adopted in July 1951 and entered into force in April 1954. Article 1 of the Convention limits its scope to “events occurring before 1 January 1951” but this restriction was removed by the 1967 Protocol relating to the Status of Refugees. 

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  • Convention relating to the Status of Stateless Persons (1954 Convention)

    A Convention that provides the definition of a stateless person and establishes a framework by which a stateless person, who is lawfully resident in a State, can have legal status. The Convention was adopted in September 1954 and entered into force in June 1960.

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